What are some PTE questions

ADD / ADHD

Does your child quickly become inattentive and easily distracted? Follow instructions and find it difficult to perform regular tasks?

Have you observed any of the following problems with your child:

  • It is difficult to follow instructions and carry out regular activities?
  • Everyday life is disorganized and actions are unplanned?
  • Are many stimuli perceived at the same time and it is difficult to concentrate on a certain task?
  • Sitting still is impossible, the whole environment (family, schoolmates, teacher) is disturbed with constant movement restlessness?
  • Absent thoughts and daydreams are also the order of the day when performing important tasks

If you can answer yes to some of these questions, it could be an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or attention deficit disorder (ADD). This can be determined through well-founded testing.

The term attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder

ADHD is the abbreviation for "Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder", translated from English "Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (AD / HD)". Also common is the abbreviation ADS, which stands for “attention deficit syndrome” or “attention deficit disorder” (ADD).

ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and its main characteristics are impaired concentration and sustained attention, impaired impulse control and, under certain circumstances, extreme motor restlessness or hyperactivity. For a long time, the focus was on motor restlessness, which is reflected in the expression "hyperkinetic syndrome" (HKS), which is still frequently used. ADHD does not only exist in childhood, as is commonly assumed, ADHD exists in all age groups and in all groups of people.

Signs and Symptoms of ADHD / ADD in Children

Does my child have ADHD / ADD? This is the question many parents ask themselves when a child is quickly inattentive and easily distracted. However, there are more signs that may indicate ADHD / ADD.

The diverse characteristics of ADHD are pronounced in each affected person with individual emphases. People with ADHD perceive a lot of their environment at the same time and are easily distracted. They have short but extremely intense attention spans and find it difficult to use their attention in a targeted manner.

Following instructions and doing regular activities creates difficulties for people with ADHD, but they are open to everything new and are characterized by a high level of creativity. People with ADHD are disorganized and act impulsively. Due to their weakness of stimulus selection, they give in to the stimulus that is strongest at the moment. In addition, they are quickly disappointed and often very impatient, they like to take risks and cannot assess risks. They have a keen sense of justice and are very helpful, but not resentful.

Often they are still very playful and childlike compared to the physical and mental age-appropriate development. If motor restlessness and hyperactivity are added to this in children, they seem to be constantly energized, often cannot sit still for a minute and their restlessness is a burden on their entire environment.

Often, behavior typical of ADHD becomes particularly noticeable when you start school. In addition to the restlessness, distractibility and impulsiveness, a lower ability to remember is also noticeable (especially for things that are perceived as boring). It takes the children much longer to learn new content than other students.

The homework situation often turns out to be difficult because the children do not start, dawdle, work very hastily, do not finish tasks or refuse to do anything at all.

The diagnosis of ADHD is made more difficult by the fact that many of the typical abnormalities can hardly be observed when the affected child is doing an activity that is interesting for them (e.g. playing Lego or playing the computer). What is noticeable in ADHD is the increased occurrence of other diseases (comorbidities) such as poor reading / spelling, arithmetic weaknesses, tic disorders or fears and depression.

It is now accepted that ADHD is a genetically determined neurobiological disorder. Children with ADHD have a different way of taking in, sorting, processing and storing information; their emotional world often fluctuates between the extremes. This other way of seeing the world arises from the fact that the messenger substances necessary for information processing in the brain, so-called neurotransmitters, are not available in sufficient quantities.

The effects are noticed in the most diverse areas of everyday life, for example in (boring) routine activities such as the morning routine at home or in learning and performance situations at school. Negative reactions from the child's or young person's environment intensify the problem and contribute to a reduction in the child's or young person's self-esteem, which creates a vicious circle from which the child, young person and family cannot escape without expert support.

ADHD is therefore not due to a parenting problem, not to the malevolence or stupidity of the child, and just as little to the character of the person affected!

People with ADHD are quickly disappointed and often very impatient, they like to take risks and cannot assess risks. In return, they are open to everything new and are characterized by a high level of creativity. They have a keen sense of justice and are very helpful, but not resentful. People with ADD tend to appear dreamy and absent. Difficulties in everyday life can arise especially with the so-called executive functions, i.e. with the inhibition of unimportant stimuli, with good working memory and / or with flexibility in thinking).

Diagnostics - recognize ADHD / ADD

ADHD is a very complex disorder and cannot be diagnosed with a single test or routine exam. Various symptoms can also indicate the presence of other disorders or causes. That is why the testing and diagnosis of ADHD consists of collecting a wide variety of information and usually several experienced professional groups such as paediatricians and psychologists are involved.

Core elements of ADHD diagnostics are

  • a detailed survey of the prehistory,
  • a full physical exam,
  • a psychological test including the creation of a talent profile and the determination of any partial performance weaknesses as well as
  • the detailed observation of behavior in different situations (supplemented by reports from parents, teachers and other caregivers).

Essential components of the diagnosis of ADHD can be carried out by the PTE. In this way, a diagnosis can be made based on internationally recognized diagnostic criteria in close cooperation with doctors and other specialist bodies.

The ADHD and ADD therapy

Short and sweet:

In addition to treating ADHD / ADD, therapy can support the child and their family and school environment.

The PTE learning therapy conveys that child elementary skills such as listening and reproducing exactly as well as delaying reactions (impulse control). In addition, work strategies and learning techniques are taught.

To you as parents To help and support you, the PTE offers ADHD parenting training, in which special expertise is imparted on upbringing and organizing everyday life. In some facilities an "open meeting" is also offered, at which parents can exchange ideas with other families in a similar situation and make new contacts. The "open meeting" is moderated by PTE experts who also answer questions and give tips.

ADHD can also occur in combination with a weakness in numeracy or reading / spelling difficulties.

Detailed information:

The PTE therapy concept is based on the latest findings in scientific research. After a detailed, interdisciplinary diagnosis, a specific therapy plan is drawn up for the child and their family. All those involved are informed about the disorder of ADHD and the effects on experience and behavior.

In a specific skill training based on behavioral therapy premises, the child learns elementary skills such as listening carefully, reproducing accurately and delaying his reactions. For young people affected, an important component of skill training is practicing self-observation.

The imparting of work strategies and learning techniques should help those affected to cope better with tasks assigned to them (e.g. doing homework or studying for a class test). In a special parent training course, concrete educational assistance is given and the basics for structuring the everyday environment are imparted. The therapy is always closely based on current conflicts and the concrete everyday experience of the child, the adolescent and his parents.

The PTE can provide support for drug treatment through expert education and behavioral observation (which must always be initiated and monitored by a doctor) and, if necessary, through close cooperation with important specialist departments, can pass it on to specific therapists (e.g. occupational therapists) .

This information page was created in cooperation with the Department of Reading / Spelling Disorders, LRS English, ADHD under the direction of Elke Fode, educator M.A. created.