What is the HIV medicine
HIV drugs prevent the virus from multiplying in the body. You start at different points.
Some drugs prevent the virus from entering the cell in the first place. Others prevent HIV from incorporating its genetic material into the cell and taking over command there. Still others prevent HIV-infected cells from making new viruses.
In HIV therapy, different drugs are always used at the same time. They block the multiplication of HIV in the body "with combined forces". That is why one speaks of HIV combination therapies.
The available drugs are divided into different classes.
Entry inhibitors (translated: entry inhibitors, also called entry inhibitors) prevent HIV from attaching to body cells and penetrating them. There are two subgroups:
CCR5-Korezptor blocker occupy an important connection point (“receptor”) on the cell surface that HIV needs to connect to the cell. In this way, the drugs prevent HIV from docking on the cell.
Fusion inhibitors combine with a component of the surface of HIV. In this way, they prevent the virus from fusing with the body cells.
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
The enzyme reverse transcriptase is a component of the HIV virus. HIV needs it to adapt its genetic make-up to the human cell. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also: inhibitors) prevent this process.
This drug class is subdivided again: Nucleotide and nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are smuggled into the cell as incorrect, non-functional building blocks and thus interrupt the process of rewriting.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) directly block the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
The integrase is an enzyme inherent in the virus. HIV needs it to build its genetic material into the nucleus of the human cell. Integrase inhibitors prevent this step in virus replication.
With the help of the virus enzyme protease, new virus building blocks are produced in the HIV-infected cell and then put together. Protease inhibitors (also: inhibitors) prevent this process.
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