What does TSH Level 298 mean
Blood values and what they mean
What does the blood do?
Blood carries both oxygen and nutrients to the organs and carries carbon dioxide and metabolic products away from them.
It is also involved in the defense against foreign substances and pathogens that have penetrated the body, regulates the temperature of the organism and distributes enzymes and hormones.
An adult person has about five to six liters of blood in their body.
What is blood made of?
Blood is made up of solid and liquid components.
The liquid blood plasma makes up 55% of the human blood and consists of 90% water. The remaining 10% is a mixture of proteins, salts and other nutrients.
The solid, cellular parts of the blood consist of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes).
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
The red blood cells make up about 99% of the blood cells and are mainly used to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide. Their color is caused by the red blood pigment hemoglobin, which can bind oxygen. The erythrocytes take up this oxygen in the lungs and then distribute it throughout the body.
There are about 5 million red blood cells for every microliter of blood. The average lifespan of erythrocytes in humans is around 120 days. To maintain the number of erythrocytes, about 1/120 erythrocytes are replaced daily.
White blood cells (leukocytes)
The white blood cells represent an inconsistent group of nucleated cells of various sizes and shapes. They are responsible for the defense against pathogens such as bacteria or viruses. They are called white blood cells or blood cells because they do not contain any red blood pigment. The leukocytes can migrate through vessels into the body tissue in order to target pathogens there.
Blood platelets (thrombocytes)
The platelets are responsible for stopping and clotting the blood. They are much smaller than the red and white blood cells and have a lifespan of 5 to 10 days. Platelets look like small discs and do not have a nucleus.
What is a blood test?
Human blood contains a number of substances that provide information about the function of organs and organ systems and thus about the patient's state of health. For this reason, both routine examinations and to clarify unclear findings are often done a blood count, in which the composition of the blood is examined.
The course of a blood test
The blood test is often recommended for:
- general exhaustion
- recurring infections
- Suspicion of certain illnesses or deficiency
The blood count can be ordered by the doctor or carried out at the patient's request.
As a rule, patients have to appear for a blood sample on an empty stomach, because food can falsify blood values. Sugar, for example, has an influence on blood values and can lead to incorrect results. The last meal should be eaten about 12 hours before the examination. Water, unsweetened tea, and black coffee are allowed within the 12 hours prior to the appointment.
Before the examination, the patient is first informed about the procedure by the doctor or medical specialist and then positioned on a chair or on a couch. The blood is drawn from the crook of the arm using a blood collection tube after the puncture site has been thoroughly disinfected. A plaster is then applied to the puncture site to protect the patient from possible infections.
The blood is then examined in the laboratory before the doctor and patient receive more detailed information about the blood count.
Difference between large and small blood counts
The small blood count measures the concentration of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), blood platelets (thrombocytes), the concentration of the red blood pigment (hemoglobin) and the hematocrit value.
If the blood count is complete, additional blood values are determined. This so-called differential blood count provides information about the different types of white blood cells. In contrast to the small blood count, not only the total number of leukocytes is given.
What blood values are there?
The amount of red blood cells and the content of the red blood pigment hemoglobin (blood value hemoglobin, Hb) indicate whether there is possibly anemia. Doctors often determine the cause of anemia based on the mean concentration of hemoglobin in a red blood cell (blood value MCHC, middle cellular hemoglobin concentration). Normally, the number of erythrocytes in the blood count should be between 3.9 and 5.7 million per microliter of blood.
The amount of white blood cells shows whether the immune system is currently active e.g. B. in combating an infection. Typically there are 4,000 to 9,000 white blood cells for every microliter of blood.
Infectious diseases, leukemia, anti-epilepsy medication, or cortisone treatment can all lead to high white blood cell counts. The number can also be increased by smoking, stress, pregnancy and physical strain.
Decreased levels can indicate autoimmune diseases, cancer, bone marrow diseases or viral infections. Certain pain relievers, rheumatoid drugs, or the antibiotic chloramphenicol can also lead to low white blood cell counts.
The risk of bleeding can be estimated from the number of blood platelets. If the bleeding is present, it can also provide an indication of the cause. Normally, the platelet count should be between 140,000 and 345,000 per microliter of blood. A lowered platelet value occurs, among other things, in cancer, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency, taking certain medications (e.g. chemotherapeutic agents), autoimmune diseases (e.g. Werlhof's disease) and blood loss. Too high platelet counts can indicate a disease of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow.
Inflammation Levels (CRP)
CRP (c-reactive protein) is a protein that is produced in the liver. If the immune system is activated due to inflammation, more CRP is also produced. In addition to the presence of inflammation, the value in the course of therapy can provide information about whether the inflammation is being successfully combated. Typically, CRP levels are less than 10 milligrams per liter of blood. Values above 100 milligrams per liter indicate severe inflammation. Values around 50 milligrams are more of a milder disease.
Liver values (ALT, AST, Gamma-GT, AP)
ALT (alanine aminotransferase, also: glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase, also: glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)) are enzymes that occur in the liver cells. They get into the blood as soon as liver cells are damaged due to disease. The severity of the liver disease is measured by how much the values are increased and what the ratio of ALT and AST is. Both values are measured in units (U) per liter. The normal value for both enzymes is less than 50 U per liter of blood.
Gamma-GT (gamma-glutamyltransferase) and AP (alkaline phosphatase) are enzymes that provide information about liver function and also indicate diseases of the biliary tract. The gamma-GT is increased with damage to the liver cells and regular alcohol consumption. If cells lining the bile ducts (bile duct epithelia) are damaged, the AP is increased. The normal value for Gamma-GT is less than 55 U / l blood, that for AP is 40 to 104 U / l blood.
Changes in liver values indicate liver diseases such as fatty liver, fatty liver inflammation, viral infection or liver cirrhosis.
Kidney values (creatinine, GfR)
The kidneys regulate the body's water balance, the acid-base content of the blood and blood pressure. They also have the task of purifying the blood and removing pollutants. Diseases such as infections, inflammations, tumors, diabetes or poisoning can reduce the filtration efficiency of the kidneys.
Creatinine is a substance that is produced as a breakdown product in the metabolism and is excreted in the urine via the kidneys. If the kidneys are damaged, they can no longer remove enough creatinine from the blood. The creatinine level is usually less than 1.1 mg / dl blood. If this value is increased, the kidneys are probably damaged.
The GfR (glomerular filtration rate) indicates how much blood can be filtered by the kidneys. It is calculated using a formula, among others. from other blood values, the age and gender of the patient. Normally the GfR is more than 90 ml / min. A low value indicates impaired kidney function.
Thyroid levels (TSH)
The thyroid is involved in controlling human metabolism. For this purpose, it needs messenger substances that can reach all areas of the body - the thyroid hormones.
The thyroid stimulating hormone controls, among other things. the body's energy metabolism. If the TSH value is increased, this can indicate a hypofunction. If it is low, this indicates that the thyroid hormone production is too high. Usually the TSH value is between 0.40 and 4.0 mU / l.
As a rule, the blood lipid values do not indicate an acute illness, but rather provide information about a future risk of illness. In this way, possible illnesses such as heart attacks or strokes can be detected early and measures can be initiated.
The blood value TC denotes the total cholesterol. This can be differentiated into bad LDL-colesterol and good HDL-cholesterol. An increased level of LDL cholesterol leads to clogging of the bloodstream. The HDL cholesterol ensures that at least part of the dangerous LDL cholesterol is transported away.
FAQ about blood values
Where can I have blood values determined?
You can have blood values determined by a doctor or, for several years, also in a pharmacy. For this purpose, a drop of blood from the fingertip is placed on a test strip. The stripe then changes color. An automatic measuring device then determines the individual blood values based on the color change. However, values determined by a doctor are more reliable.
Blood values - when is there a result?
Most laboratory values are recorded fully automatically and in most cases are available to the attending physician the day after the blood sample has been taken. If the values are outside the norm, the doctor may be informed by the laboratory on the same day so that further measures can be initiated as soon as possible.
Do you find out your blood values when you donate blood?
Every blood donation is examined in the laboratory. Not only the blood group is determined. The donor's blood is also tested for hepatitis A, B and C viruses, HIV and antibodies against the causative agent of syphilis. If the laboratory finds any abnormal findings, the blood donors concerned will be informed.
Can you recognize cancer from your blood values?
So-called tumor or cancer markers are proteins that can be detected in the blood. However, tumor markers are also found in the blood of healthy people. Only an increased value actually indicates a tumor or cancer. The tumor or cancer markers include the values: AFP, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, CEA, CYFRA, HCG, NSE, PSA, SCC, thyroglobin, TPA.
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