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Stefan Schweizer - German Idealism, Autopoiesis And Radical Constructivism

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German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism 1st part: A reconstruction of the history of ideas by Stefan Schweizer Landhausstraße 153, 70188 Stuttgart [email protected] Electroneurobiología 2007; 15 (1), pp. 3-62; ABSTRACT: The present two-article series first shows that the axiomatics of the systemic-cybernetic-biological theory of self-organization by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela has its nourishing roots in the philosophy of German Idealism. Especially the completely subject-centered philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte already contains the entire central axiomatics of Maturana and Varela. Some of these ideas, isolatedly, have been usual also before in South America's German-influenced neurobiology, such as the difference between organization and structure (the first common and essential to every living organism and the second variable, specific and concrete) taught by Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires in the 1940's. The companion article (2nd Part of this series) studies the Anthropology (1822) of Johann Christian Heinroth, the first University Chair of Medical Psychology or Psychiatry, pointing out also its divergences with German Idealism as well as his Romantic appreciation of electricity, and electromagnetic phenomena, as linked to neuropsychological and spiritual realities; Heinroth probably was the first clinical psychiatrist to feel the need of building a unitary concept in psychology, akin to that of the total personality today, and the first academician to whom the ideational content of at least some of the mentally ill presented not merely a set of aberrations but a psychological process full of meaning. Outside of this series' scope remains the dependence of these historic-conceptual developments upon a substitution, suggested by Heidegger ("the oblivion of Being") and many other scholars, of the enactive meaning of "to be" by a predicative one, a process which finally made possible both German Idealism and, by its building on Aristotle's need of building a unitary concept in biology to unify the consideration of all biological entities without distinguishing the empsyched from the non-empsyched ones, German Idealism's autopoietic retinue. SUMARIO: La presente serie de dos artículos muestra primero que la axiomática de la teoría sistémico-cibernético-biológica de la autoorganización, de Humberto Maturana y Francisco Varela, hinca sus raíces nutricias en la filosofía del idealismo alemán. Especialmente la filosofía por completo centrada en el sujeto de Johann Gottlieb Fichte ya contiene completa la axiomática central de Maturana and Varela. Algunas de tales ideas, aisladas, ya habían sido usuales en la neurobiología de influencia germana en América del Sud, como la diferencia entre organización y estructura (la primera común y esencial a todo viviente y la segunda variable, específica y concreta) enseñada por Ramón Carrillo en Buenos Aires en los años 1940. El artículo acompañante (2da Parte de esta serie) estudia la Antropología (1822) de Johann Christian Heinroth, el primer catedrático universitario de Psicología Médica o Psiquiatría, señalando sus divergencias con el idealismo alemán romántica apreciación de la electricidad y el magnetismo como ligados a las realidades neuropsicológicas y espirituales; Heinroth es probable que haya sido el primer clínico psiquíatra en sentir la necesidad de construir un concepto unitario en psicología, afín hoy al de personalidad integral, y el primer académico a quien el contenido ideativo de al menos algunos insanos no se le presentó como mero hato de aberraciones, sino como proceso psicológico con sentido. Por fuera del propósito de esta serie queda la dependencia, de estos desarrollos histórico-conceptuales, de una substitución sugerida por numerosos estudiosos, entre ellos Heidegger (como "olvido del ser"). Se trata de la substitución del significado enactivo de "ser" por uno predica

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German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism 1st part: A reconstruction of the history of ideas by Stefan Schweizer Landhausstraße 153, 70188 Stuttgart [email protected] Electroneurobiología 2007; 15 (1), pp. 3-62; ABSTRACT: The present two-article series first shows that the axiomatics of the systemic-cybernetic-biological theory of self-organization by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela has its nourishing roots in the philosophy of German Idealism. Especially the completely subject-centered philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte already contains the entire central axiomatics of Maturana and Varela. Some of these ideas, isolatedly, have been usual also before in South America's German-influenced neurobiology, such as the difference between organization and structure (the first common and essential to every living organism and the second variable, specific and concrete) taught by Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires in the 1940's. The companion article (2nd Part of this series) studies the Anthropology (1822) of Johann Christian Heinroth, the first University Chair of Medical Psychology or Psychiatry, pointing out also its divergences with German Idealism as well as his Romantic appreciation of electricity, and electromagnetic phenomena, as linked to neuropsychological and spiritual realities; Heinroth probably was the first clinical psychiatrist to feel the need of building a unitary concept in psychology, akin to that of the total personality today, and the first academician to whom the ideational content of at least some of the mentally ill presented not merely a set of aberrations but a psychological process full of meaning. Outside of this series' scope remains the dependence of these historic-conceptual developments upon a substitution, suggested by Heidegger ("the oblivion of Being") and many other scholars, of the enactive meaning of "to be" by a predicative one, a process which finally made possible both German Idealism and, by its building on Aristotle's need of building a unitary concept in biology to unify the consideration of all biological entities without distinguishing the empsyched from the non-empsyched ones, German Idealism's autopoietic retinue. SUMARIO: La presente serie de dos artículos muestra primero que la axiomática de la teoría sistémico-cibernético-biológica de la autoorganización, de Humberto Maturana y Francisco Varela, hinca sus raíces nutricias en la filosofía del idealismo alemán. Especialmente la filosofía por completo centrada en el sujeto de Johann Gottlieb Fichte ya contiene completa la axiomática central de Maturana and Varela. Algunas de tales ideas, aisladas, ya habían sido usuales en la neurobiología de influencia germana en América del Sud, como la diferencia entre organización y estructura (la primera común y esencial a todo viviente y la segunda variable, específica y concreta) enseñada por Ramón Carrillo en Buenos Aires en los años 1940. El artículo acompañante (2da Parte de esta serie) estudia la Antropología (1822) de Johann Christian Heinroth, el primer catedrático universitario de Psicología Médica o Psiquiatría, señalando sus divergencias con el idealismo alemán romántica apreciación de la electricidad y el magnetismo como ligados a las realidades neuropsicológicas y espirituales; Heinroth es probable que haya sido el primer clínico psiquíatra en sentir la necesidad de construir un concepto unitario en psicología, afín hoy al de personalidad integral, y el primer académico a quien el contenido ideativo de al menos algunos insanos no se le presentó como mero hato de aberraciones, sino como proceso psicológico con sentido. Por fuera del propósito de esta serie queda la dependencia, de estos desarrollos histórico-conceptuales, de una substitución sugerida por numerosos estudiosos, entre ellos Heidegger (como "olvido del ser"). Se trata de la substitución del significado enactivo de "ser" por uno predica

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0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 people voted)
231 views 60 pages

Original title:

Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism

Description:

German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism 1st part: A reconstruction of the history of ideas by Stefan Schweizer Landhausstraße 153, 70188 Stuttgart [email protected] Electroneurobiología 2007; 15 (1), pp. 3-62; ABSTRACT: The present two-article series first shows that the axiomatics of the systemic-cybernetic-biological theory of self-organization by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela has its nourishing roots in the philosophy of German Idealism. Especially the completely subject-centered philosophy of Johann Gottlieb Fichte already contains the entire central axiomatics of Maturana and Varela. Some of these ideas, isolatedly, have been usual also before in South America's German-influenced neurobiology, such as the difference between organization and structure (the first common and essential to every living organism and the second variable, specific and concrete) taught by Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires in the 1940's. The companion article (2nd Part of this series) studies the Anthropology (1822) of Johann Christian Heinroth, the first University Chair of Medical Psychology or Psychiatry, pointing out also its divergences with German Idealism as well as his Romantic appreciation of electricity, and electromagnetic phenomena, as linked to neuropsychological and spiritual realities; Heinroth probably was the first clinical psychiatrist to feel the need of building a unitary concept in psychology, akin to that of the total personality today, and the first academician to whom the ideational content of at least some of the mentally ill presented not merely a set of aberrations but a psychological process full of meaning. Outside of this series' scope remains the dependence of these historic-conceptual developments upon a substitution, suggested by Heidegger ("the oblivion of Being") and many other scholars, of the enactive meaning of "to be" by a predicative one, a process which finally made possible both German Idealism and, by its building on Aristotle's need of building a unitary concept in biology to unify the consideration of all biological entities without distinguishing the empsyched from the non-empsyched ones, German Idealism's autopoietic retinue. SUMARIO: La presente serie de dos artículos muestra primero que la axiomática de la teoría sistémico-cibernético-biológica de la autoorganización, de Humberto Maturana y Francisco Varela, hinca sus raíces nutricias en la filosofía del idealismo alemán. Especialmente la filosofía por completo centrada en el sujeto de Johann Gottlieb Fichte ya contiene completa la axiomática central de Maturana and Varela. Algunas de tales ideas, aisladas, ya habían sido usuales en la neurobiología de influencia germana en América del Sud, como la diferencia entre organización y estructura (la primera común y esencial a todo viviente y la segunda variable, específica y concreta) enseñada por Ramón Carrillo en Buenos Aires en los años 1940. El artículo acompañante (2da Parte de esta serie) estudia la Antropología (1822) de Johann Christian Heinroth, el primer catedrático universitario de Psicología Médica o Psiquiatría, señalando sus divergencias con el idealismo alemán romántica apreciación de la electricidad y el magnetismo como ligados a las realidades neuropsicológicas y espirituales; Heinroth es probable que haya sido el primer clínico psiquíatra en sentir la necesidad de construir un concepto unitario en psicología, afín hoy al de personalidad integral, y el primer académico a quien el contenido ideativo de al menos algunos insanos no se le presentó como mero hato de aberraciones, sino como proceso psicológico con sentido. Por fuera del propósito de esta serie queda la dependencia, de estos desarrollos histórico-conceptuales, de una substitución sugerida por numerosos estudiosos, entre ellos Heidegger (como "olvido del ser"). Se trata de la substitución del significado enactivo de "ser" por uno predica

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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As PDF, TXT download or read it online on Scribd

Electroneurobiología vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, 2007

German idealism, autopoiesis


and radical constructivism
1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

of

Stefan Schweizer
Landhausstrasse 153, 70188 Stuttgart
[email protected]

Electroneurobiología 2007; 15 (1), pp. 3-62; Url


<http://electroneubio.secyt.gov.ar/index2.htm>

Copyright © January 2007 Electroneurobiología. This research work is publicly available. The
Faithful reproduction and distribution through the media is only permitted under the following conditions:
Reproduction of this paragraph and indication of the complete reference when published, including the
original internet address (URL, see above). / Este texto es un artículo de acceso público; su copia
exacta y redistribución por cualquier medio están permitidas bajo la condición de conservar esta noticia y
la referencia completa a su publicación incluyendo the URL (ver arriba). / This is an Open Access article:
verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided
This notice is preserved along with the article's full citation and URL (above).
Accepted: January 20, 2007

ABSTRACT: The present two-article series first shows that the axiomatics of
the systemic-cybernetic-biological theory of self-organization by Humberto
Maturana and Francisco Varela has its nourishing roots in the philosophy of
German idealism. Especially the completely subject-centered philosophy of
Johann Gottlieb Fichte already contains the entire central axiomatics of
Maturana and Varela. Some of these ideas, isolatedly, have been usual also
before in South America's German-influenced neurobiology, such as the
E l e c t r o n e u r o b i o l o g í a vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, January 2007

difference between organization and structure (the first common and essential
to every living organism and the second variable, specific and concrete)
taught by Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires in the 1940's. The companion article
(2nd Part of this series) studies the Anthropology (1822) of Johann Christian
Heinroth, the first University Chair of Medical Psychology or Psychiatry,
pointing out also its divergences with German Idealism as well as his
Romantic appreciation of electricity, and electromagnetic phenomena, as
linked to neuropsychological and spiritual realities; Heinroth probably was the
first clinical psychiatrist to feel the need of building a unitary concept in
psychology, akin to that of the total personality today, and the first
academician to whom the ideational content of at least some of the mentally
ill presented not merely a set of aberrations but a psychological process full of
meaning. Outside of this series' scope remains the dependence of these
historic-conceptual developments upon a substitution, suggested by
Heidegger ("the oblivion of being") and many other scholars, of the enactive
meaning of "to be" by a predicative one, a process which finally made possible
both German Idealism and, by its building on Aristotle's need of building a
unitary concept in biology to unify the consideration of all biological entities
without distinguishing the empsyched from the non-empsyched ones, German
Idealism's autopoietic retinue.

SUMARIO: La presente serie de dos artículos muestra primero que la


axiomática de la teoría sistémico-cibernético-biológica de la autoorganización,
de Humberto Maturana y Francisco Varela, hinca sus raíces nutricias en la
filosofía del idealismo alemán. Especialmente la filosofía por completo
centrada en el sujeto de Johann Gottlieb Fichte ya contiene completa la
axiomática central de Maturana and Varela. Algunas de tales ideas, aisladas,
ya habían sido usuales en la neurobiología de influencia germana en America
del Sud, como la diferencia entre organización y estructura (la primera común
y esencial a todo viviente y la segunda variable, específica y concreta)
enseñada por Ramón Carrillo in Buenos Aires en los años 1940. El artículo
acompañante (2da Parte de esta serie) estudia la Antropología (1822) de
Johann Christian Heinroth, el primer catedrático universitario de Psicología
Médica o Psiquiatría, señalando sus divergencias con el idealismo alemán así
como su romántica apreciación de la electricidad y el magnetismo como
ligados a las realidades neuropsicológicas y espirituales; Heinroth it probable
que haya sido el primer clínico psiquíatra en sentir la necesidad de construir
un concepto unitario en psicología, afín hoy al de personalidad integral, y el
primer académico a quien el contenido ideativo de al menos algunos insanos
no se le presentó como mero hato de aberraciones, sino como proceso
psicológico con sentido. Por fuera del propósito de this series queda la
dependencia, de estos desarrollos histórico-conceptuales, de una substitución
sugerida por numerosos estudiosos, entre ellos Heidegger (como "olvido del
ser "). Se trata de la substitución del significado enactivo de" ser "por uno
predicativo, proceso este que finalmente hizo posible al idealismo alemán y -
por el desenvolvimiento en este de la necesidad que tuvo Aristóteles de
construir un concepto unitario en biología, que unificara la consideración de
todas las entidades biológicas sin distinguir las empsiqueadas de las que no se
regulan por un psiquismo - al séquito autopoiético de dicho idealismo.

4
Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism. 1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

content

introduction
method

II. Philosophical-historical foundations of the autopoiesis theories and


of radical constructivism
1st Kant
Kant's epistemology
Kant's anthropology or: what is man?
2. Spruce
Fichte's constitution of the world through the subject
Fichte's anthropology
3. Schelling
Identity and Art Philosophy

II. Autopoies Theory and Radical Constructivism as a continuation


tion and specification of the theories of German idealism
1. Reconstruction of the "theory of autopoiesis"
2. Reconstruction of the "theory of autopoiesis" as a biological con
zept (model 1st stage)
3. Philosophical connotations of the "theory of autopoeia
se "and its concept and science transfers from nature to
Social sciences
4. The theoretical model of structural coupling
5. Analytical vocabulary for social science theory gain
from the autopoiesis axiomatic
6. Radical Constructivism as a Modern Philosophical Under-
masonry of the "theory of autopoiesis"
7. What is reality? Radical Constructivist Answers
Autopoiesis in Chilean Neurobiology
Epistemology of Radical Constructivism
8. Siegfried Schmidt's attempt at further development of the radical con
structivism

Conclusion
outlook
bibliography

]^

5
E l e c t r o n e u r o b i o l o g í a vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, January 2007

1ST CHAPTER:

A reconstruction of the history of ideas

Summary: self-organization concepts, i.e. theories of au-


topoiesis, still enjoy an inter- and transdisciplinary
love in the scientific discourse system. What is amazing is that
Self-organization theories in many disciplines have been the discourse since
have mastered or have mastered for a long time without any knowledge
economic historical reflection on the philosophical-paradigmatic background
would have taken place on the basis of self-organization theories. The following is
not, as is otherwise usual, the biological-cybernetic system model of
Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela as the starting point for self-organizing
on the theoretical building, rather the attempt to identify
from which theory and school of theory the
biological-cybernetic self-organization theory finds its foundation.
At the same time, a sociological use of the mo-
dells received, which makes the claim theoretically as a guide to
to be practical in shaping society. A special feature is that the
Theoretical building of Maturana and Varela the allegation philosophically
humanistic arbitrariness behind, since it is based on na-
scientific-empirical results and thus "objective" and
is initially little vulnerable. However, the thumping seems to be on the
The empirical nature of scientific research as an immunizing, residual
categorically proceeding defense against criticism is no longer functional per se.
how massive criticism of the methodological approach and the
the at least radically constructivistically inspired German
neurophysiologists Wolf Singer and Gerhard Roth have shown.

1 Introduction
Self-organization concepts, i.e. theories of autopoiesis,
continue to enjoy inter- and transdisciplinary popularity
in the scientific discourse system. It is astonishing that self-
organizational theories in many disciplines have been the discourse since
have mastered or have mastered for a long time without any knowledge
economic historical reflection on the philosophical-paradigmatic
Background of the self-organization theories would have taken place. This
Desideratum does not seem unproblematic, since it is therefore scientific

6
Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism. 1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

Discourse does not ensure its discursive events in terms of content


nor does it sufficiently reflect its origins.

A working up of the question of a


origin of the autopoietic theory school. 1 In the following,
not, as is otherwise usual, the biological-cybernetic system model
by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela as a starting point
self-organizing theory building identified, rather the
Attempted to identify from which theory
the biological-cybernetic self-organization
on theory learns its foundation. This historical-genetic classification
First of all, the autopoies axiomatic is relieved of the accusation
arbitrariness, 2 but at the same time it adds ideological and ideological
connections open. It is demonstrated in detail below that the
relevant axioms and premises of self-organization theories im
German idealism well-founded and from radical constructivism
can be specified. Insofar comes the biological-systems-theoretical
Self-organization concepts from Maturana and Varela a hinge
position on: On the one hand, they build on the (especially epistemological)
Theory and the knowledge of German idealism, other-
on the other hand, through their findings, they provide the basis for further philo-
philosophical-epistemological discussions of the radical construct
vism. This paper does not only deal with the biological
system-theoretical model by Maturana and Varela remained.
Rather, at the same time, a sociological application
wise of the model received, which makes the claim theoretically
to be a guide to the practical organization of society.

A special feature is that the theoretical building of Maturana and


Varela the charge of philosophical and humanistic arbitrariness
Could leave behind, as it is based on scientific-empirical
Results based and thus "objective" and initially little different
is tangible. However, the insistence on empiricism seems to be natural
scientific research as an immunizing, residual category
erratic defense against criticism no longer works per se, like
massive criticism of the methodical approach and the results

1
However, the first attempts at such a work-up have recently been made. E.g. Stefan
Schweizer, Political Control of Self-Organized Networks, pp. 85-134 and Pia-Johanna Schwei-
zer / Stefan Schweizer, Idealistic Axiomatics of the Self-Organization Paradigm, pp. 53-66.
2
See, for example, the criticism of the system-theoretical-
social scientific constructivism à la Luhmann in: Hartmut Esser, Sociology. Special basic
lay. Volume 6, p. 538 f.

7
E l e c t r o n e u r o b i o l o g í a vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, January 2007

winning over the at least radically constructivist-inspired German


neurophysiologists Wolf Singer and Gerhard Roth have shown. 3
Recent research has shown that in the experimental and em-
pirically proceeding natural sciences also include ideological facts
be transported in the form of ideologies and, above all, worldviews
the. 4th

Through the goals outlined above and the approach of the
sentence is therefore a contribution to the plausibility of the history of science
sizing and historical-genetic classification of families of theories
achieves, because the autopoietic basis of argument is, as I said,
not, as previously usual, on the biological-systems-theoretical system
concept of Maturana and Varela, but its development
tracked down the starting point in German idealism. At the same time you can
suspect that diachronic redundancies of similar paradigms5 are based on similar
social structural prerequisites that their-
on the other hand, then evoke semantics, which in turn revolutions of ideas
enables. 6 These considerations in the sociology of knowledge can be
Unfortunately, this framework cannot be ignored. Besides, would stay
the desideratum of a more far-reaching philosophy and the history of ideas
Foundation of the autopoiesis theories and radical constructivism,
e.g. in ancient Greek philosophy.

Also between the successor paradigm of German idealism,


namely the anthropology of romanticism, and the modern self-organization
There are numerous connections between theories. One of the protagonists of the
The anthropology of Romanticism was, for example, Johann Christian Heinroth,
There are also references in his work to the modern self-organization
course. A characteristic of the anthropology of Romanticism is the empirical
tion of the abstract philosophy of German idealism. Empiricalization of the
idealistic philosophy in this context means that the philo-
sophical theory a posteriori factual materials are superseded.
An empiricalization of Schelling's anthropologized identity philosophy
then results e.g. that the man's love gives and the woman merely gives
that love is receiving. With Schelling, the object urges women to

3
For the work of Roth and Singer see examples: Wolfgang Singer, The observer in the brain and
Gerhard Roth, The brain and its reality.
4
Horst Thomé, world view literature. In: Lutz Danneberg / Friedrich Vollhardt, Knowledge in Literature im
19th century. Tübingen 2002, pp.338-380 and Horst Thomé, The view of the whole. To the origin
the concept of "worldview" and worldview literature. In: Werner Frick et al. (Ed.), Aufklä-
rungen: On the history of literature in modern times. Tübingen 2003, pp. 387-401.
5
On the concept of the paradigm, see Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, p. 180
ff.
6
Niklas Luhmann, Society Structure and Semantics, Volume 1, p. 19.

8
Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism. 1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

look in front of the man, in Heinroth's romantic anthropology


the woman liked the man. 7

The outlined scientific approach of the romantic


Anthropology is not without its problems as theories are checked against reality
should be. Theories cannot be made by bending facts
confirm, unless you are working with scientifically unfair
Means. With the aspect of the subsequent empiricization of abstract theo-
riegebäude correlates an essential function of the anthropological
Written material, which is used in a type of life counseling for broader population
layers, e.g. that of the educated class. Consequently
the question arises as to the frequent use of the anthropological
Theories and the associated justification effort by the authors.

A brief historical consideration is recommended here. The romantic


is a time of socio-political upheaval, the attempt being made
the development processes of the Enlightenment, secularization and French
to change direction of the tian revolution. 8 The anthropology of romanticism can
table and sociologically as a roll-back attempt of the liberalized and secular
Enlightenment be understood.9 This applies to idealism and the
Romantic anthropology that both the construction of a system of meaning
tried, which achieves more than what was considered deficient, from enlightenment
generation and science. In phases of this disorientation
The anthropological textbooks provide meaning and systems of meaning
ready, who contradict those of the Enlightenment and even their aims
le counteract. Knowing the consequences of the associated popularization
scientific knowledge10 are text-based presentation patterns, which are identical
sam characteristics of the scientific and literary approach implicitly
adorn.

2. Procedure
About the scientific-historical-historical dimension of the essay
to substantiate, the essay chooses a successive chronological approach
wise. This decision for the diachronicity results from the procurement

7
Johann Christian Heinroth, Textbook of Anthropology, p. 108 ff.
8
See Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann, Political Theology of Counter-Enlightenment. Saint-Martin, De Maistre,
Kleuker, Baader. Berlin 2004, p. 16 f.
9
Pia-Johanna Schweizer / Stefan Schweizer, Age Theories in the Anthropology of Romanticism, p.
320 f.
10
A great moment in the history of science popularization in the field of natural science
are the Kosmos lectures by Alexander von Humboldt 1827/28. Cf. Alexander von Humboldt, Die Kos-
mos lectures. Frankfurt am Main 2004.

9
E l e c t r o n e u r o b i o l o g í a vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, January 2007

openness of the object, especially since there are no epistemological and me-


moral considerations speak against such an approach.

In a first step, the philosophical-historical fundamentals


the autopoiesis theories and radical constructivism.
structured. As already mentioned, these consist in the philosophy of the German idealism
mus, in personae Kant, Fichte and Schelling. The reconciliations undertaken here
Structural efforts pursue a middle path because it is in this one
Context not possible, a complete and comprehensive reconstruction
tion of the philosophical works of the protagonists of German idealism
to give, but at the same time the representation should not be exclusively for
consider aspects relevant to the self-organization discourse. Parts of the
At first glance, works by Kant, Fichte and Schelling have nothing to do with them
common to the self-organization paradigm, but then depend on
closer consideration with this together.

The second step reconstructs the autopoies theo-


from the Chilean neurobiologists Maturana and Varela as well as a sociological
scientific adaptation and at the same time outlines the main features of the
cal constructivism as Ernst von Glasersfeld reads it. At the same time
which takes into account the new constructivist approaches of the German discourse,
especially those of Sigfried Schmidt, who promoted constructivism
applied to questions of cultural studies.

Thirdly, it is specifically demonstrated where and to what extent the German


Idealism, especially that of Fichte and Schelling, the modern
Have shaped self-organization thinking. It is above all the basal axio-
matics of the autopoies paradigm, which is already in German idealism
is mapped out.

Fourth, the outlook outlines where further research


There is a need for training and desiderata.

]^

10
Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism. 1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

I. Philosophical-historical foundations
of the autopoiesis theories
and radical constructivism

1st Kant

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Kant's Copernican turn of the transcendental philosophy

Kant's philosophy operates under the label of Critical Idea-
lism and is considered to be the pioneer of German idealism, but without any real
finally, not least in terms of time, to be part of it. The
Kantian critical idealism subjects the cognitive processes as they are
carry out a thorough revision in the knowing subject. That means,
that he does not move the philosophizing reason into unknown spaces of ours
The world of the senses wander, instead he draws attention to the space of
11 It is due to the similarity of the trend towards secular
and anthropologizing between Kant and other early romantic
different philosophical positions. Sociopolitically converged
this with attacks of secularization and a turn to people
the Enlightenment. Kant like early romantic philosophers or anthropologists
try extensive explanatory power without transcendent auxiliary constructs
even where this seems difficult at first glance.12 It
Kant's philosophical work is about attempting an explanation
of what lies behind the perceptible through the (pure) mind. 13th
The interest of Kantian reason flows into the three basic ones, his phi-

11
Steffen Dietzsch, German Idealism, p. 104.
12
Immanuel Kant, Critique of Judgment, p. 406.
13
Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena, p. 134.

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E l e c t r o n e u r o b i o l o g í a vol. 15 (1), pp. 3-62, January 2007

Philosophy-determining questions, which Kant to consider through his three critiques
I was looking for an answer:

- what one could know


- what to do and
- what one can hope for.

The first question is speculative, the second practical and the third
practically and theoretically at the same time14 oriented. Each of the three questions thus
promise the fillet of one of Kant's three main works. In addition, can
one Kant's transcendental physics, contrary to Kant's assertion, no metaphysical
sics to be called metaphysics of metaphysics and metaphysics
For Kant, every scientific knowledge, if it is necessary, is
to go beyond empirical experience. Kant also tried
methodologically the deficits of the purely empirical and purely analytical
to lift. Consequently, he strikes a middle ground, in which empirical and analytical
Procedures are linked to one another. Terms always go
beyond empirical experience, if of knowledge, of any
World or reality, spoken of morality, beauty or history
becomes.15

Kant's epistemology

According to Kant, the intellect designs a picture of the world that
appears table-real in the sense of objectively given. Subject activity brings about
accordingly the result of (world) creation:

“Because we don't know nature any other than the epitome of nature
Apparitions d. i. of the ideas in us, and can therefore the law
their connection nowhere else than from the principles of connection
same in us, d. i. the terms of the necessary association in
a consciousness that makes up the possibility of experience,
16
take. "

In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant lays the foundation of the cognitive
nist theoretical paradigm shift with the proof that we are not the world
recognize what it is, but that the world only appears to us as we do it
detect. The knowing consciousness is not an imprint of the world, but
the world imprint of human consciousness. 17 Knowledge cannot die
to be intuitive vision of an essence existing independently of us, “but

14
Immanuel Kant, Critique of Pure Reason, p. 838 f.
15
Volker Gerhardt: Kant, Immanuel, p. 439.
16
Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena, p. 80 (§ 36, How is nature itself possible?).
17
Lothar Pikulik: Early Romanticism, p. 34.

12
Stefan Schweizer - German idealism, autopoiesis and radical constructivism. 1st chapter:
A reconstruction of the history of ideas

the conceptual and subjective schematization of a spatiotemporal


nen. "18 It is the" pure sensual perception as space and time, "which
made a priori knowledge possible, and only for objects of the senses. ”19
These theoretical explanations subsequently enabled the so-called
Copernican turn in epistemology. In this context
hears that the sources of metaphysical perception are neither empirical
leaps and bounds, nor can be derived from experiments. 20 The
knowing subject creates the world. This statement applies to every
individual subject anew. It is assumed that the existing
World perceived according to the respective subject structure and that along these
Conditions can be acted on. It should be noted that with Kant the sub-
subjective knowledge is not identical with non-objective knowledge, there
the consciousness of the people structure is moderately created the same. Thus can
one generalizes the meaning of subjective knowledge intersubjectively.
nern. Kant states that the thinking function is based on an activity whose
The author is the self-confident subject. The intellect skilfully designs one
Picture of the world. The fact arises from the activity of subjectivity, so that
it can be said to be our creation. 21 Going further, Kant
specifies that a relation between the object structure and the associated
The form of judgment exists or that what we call objects is nothing
"is other than what we refer to in our true judgments."
The stimulus of real things in itself acts as raw material on the understanding of knowledge.
like and the a priori forms of the mind and is
closing shaped. The cognitive faculty has a triadic structure.
Its function is to prove the a priori principles of
mitering ability. 23 A priori means a universal application
and a transcendental level of sensory perception. 24 knowledge
Senserwerb is a compound process and does not only consist of the
Knowledge of sensual impressions.

Kant's anthropology or: what is man?

Kant turned more pragmatic in his late work anthropology


Expressly regards the questions of what a person is and what he
stand For Kant, there has always been between anthropology, morality and religion

18
Jean Grondin: Kant for an introduction, p. 48 f.
19
Immanuel Kant: Critique of Practical Reason, p. 58.
20
Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena, p. 13.
21
Manfred Frank: Introduction to early romantic aesthetics, p. 14.
22
Manfred Frank: Introduction to early romantic aesthetics, p. 14 f.
23
Heiner F. Klemme, Introduction (K.d.p.V.), S. XVII.
24
Paul Carus: Kant's Philosophy, p. 186.

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a close connection. 25 The pragmatic anthropology as a teaching of the


Knowledge of human beings includes the question of what human beings are "free to trade"