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Chinese revolution

This Chinese Revolution Glossary contains words, terms, and concepts relevant to the history of China from the Hundred-Day Reforms in 1898 to the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. Words from L to Z. This glossary was written and compiled by alpha story authors. To suggest a word or phrase for inclusion in this glossary, please contact us at Alpha History.

L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | W | X | Y | Z

An embassy is a building or building that is inhabited by foreign diplomats and officials. It has a similar function to a message.

Lei Feng Spirit (or Learn from Lei Feng)
Lei Feng Spirit was a CCP propaganda device that was launched in 1963 and widely used in 1964. It promoted an attitude of loyalty, hard work, self-sacrifice and devotion to the party. The campaign was based on the alleged diary entries and deeds of Lei Feng, a soldier in the Young People's Liberation Army.

Li Lisan Line
The Li Lisan Lineage was a change in the CCP's policies and tactics that was endorsed by the party hierarchy in February 1930. It called for a proletarian revolution driven by workers' uprisings in the cities. The Li Lisan line stood in opposition to the peasant revolution advocated by Mao Zedong.

Little red book
The 'Little Red Book' was the slang name for Quotes from Chairman Mao Zedong, a little red book published between 1964 and 1976. It was worn by millions of Chinese, but especially the Red Guards, who viewed it as a sign of loyalty to Mao and the revolution.

Literary Societies
Literary societies were political groups established mainly by members of the New Army in the last few years of the Qing Dynasty. They studied and discussed subversive and republican literature that inspired revolutionary feelings and activities.

Long march
The Long March marked the withdrawal of the Red Army and Chinese Communist Party cadres from the Southern Soviets to northern Shaanxi Province in 1934-35. During this operation, thousands of people marched over long distances over often treacherous terrain. It also involved several military defeats and great losses. Even so, the CCP viewed the Long March as a victory because it showed superior communist leadership, perseverance, and solidarity.

Chinese word for "chaos" often used to describe the Cultural Revolution.

Luding Bridge
The Luding Bridge was a chain suspension bridge over the Dadu River in Sichuan, central China. The bridge was crossed by Red Army troops during the Long March in May 1935. According to communist reports, they crossed the bridge under heavy fire from nationalist troops. The crossing has become an important part of the Long March propaganda.

Lushan conference
The Lushan Conference refers to a meeting of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1959 in Jiangxi. This conference was noteworthy for Defense Minister Peng Dehuai, who criticized Mao Zedong and the big leap forward. This resulted in Mao Dehuai firing from the military.

The Manchu were an ethnic group from northern China. Their language, appearance, and culture set them apart from the majority of the Han Chinese. The Manchus founded the Qing Dynasty in the 1600s.

A region in northeast China, the ethnic homeland of the Manchu. Manchuria was influenced by neighboring Russia in the 19th century, then Japanese between 1910 and 1945.

Manchukuo was an independent state founded by the Japanese in Manchuria in 1932. The Japanese installed the former Qing Emperor Puyi as their leader, but Manchukuo was actually a puppet state serving the political, economic and territorial interests of Japan.

A mandarin was a government official or bureaucrat in imperial China. Mandarins were recruited from the upper classes, selected through rigorous trials, and positioned in one of several ranks, with nobles and minor kings occupying the higher ranks.

Order of Heaven
The Mandate of Heaven was a Chinese political principle that claimed that the emperors drew their power from heaven. As a result, they were responsible to Heaven for their mistakes. An increase in opposition, civil unrest, natural disasters or crop failures could be interpreted as evidence that Heaven's mandate has been withdrawn, which legitimizes its elimination.

Maoism (Also Mao Zedong thought about it)
Maoism was the official ideology of the Chinese Communist Party. It was derived from the writings of Mao Zedong and his adaptations of Marxism and Chinese political philosophy. The basic principles of Maoism include the importance of the peasants as a revolutionary force, concentration on the “mass line” and the adaptation of communism to Chinese conditions.

Mao's good swimming
The "Good Swim" was a public performance by Mao Zedong in July 1966 when the 72-year-old was taking a long bath in the Yangtze. A long period of seclusion and rumors that Mao was near death followed. The Good Swim suggested that Mao was in excellent health and was actively leading the party and nation.

Mao Zedong thought about it (see Maoism).

Incident with the Marco Polo Bridge
The Marco Polo Bridge incident was a 1937 border battle between Chinese and Japanese forces in July. It led to a major invasion of China by Japanese forces and the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Marxism is a political philosophy that was developed in the late 19th century by the German writers Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Marxism suggests that society progresses gradually, moving from medieval feudalism to capitalism, then to socialism and communism. Marxism was the guiding ideology of the communist revolutionaries in Russia and China. Their principles were adopted and integrated into Maoism.

Mass campaigns
Mass campaigns are a term used for nationwide mobilizations during the Mao era, such as the Three and Five Antis Campaign, the Hundred Flower Campaign, the Four Pests Campaign, and the Four Elderly Campaigns.

Ground line
The "mass line" was a principle expressed by Mao Zedong. She claimed that the Chinese Communist Party's ideology and politics should be determined by the collective will of the people.

May 4th movement
The May 4th Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-feudalist, cultural, and social movement that culminated in 1919. It arose out of protest against the government's reaction to the Treaty of Versailles, which sanctioned Japanese imperial interests in China. Student protests on May 4, 1919 led to demonstrations, strikes and boycotts. The May 4th Movement became the first mass movement in Chinese history.

May 7th Cadre Schools
The May 7 cadre schools were agricultural labor camps established during the Cultural Revolution. Urban students and dissidents were sent to these "schools" for forced labor and re-education.

May 30th motion
The May 30 movement describes nationalist and anti-foreign protests and strikes in Shanghai in May-June-1925. This unrest was triggered by exploitative labor practices in foreign-owned factories and the shooting of demonstrators by foreign police officers.

Missionaries were Protestant and Roman Catholic volunteers who came to China in the late 13th century. Their number, as well as the number of Chinese converted to Christianity, increased significantly in the 18th and 19th centuries. Christian missionaries were upset and became a target in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900.

Monkey King
The Monkey King was a popular name for Sun Wukong, a character in classical Chinese literature who was endowed with supernatural powers and tremendous strength. Mao Zedong often referred to the Monkey King, while Maoist propaganda sometimes suggested that Mao had similar traits.

Mukden incident
The Mukden incident was an explosion secretly staged by Japanese troops in 1931. It gave the Japanese the pretext to invade Manchuria and conquer it.

Nanchang uprising
The Nanchang Uprising was a communist attempt to take control of Nanchang in Jiangxi Province in August 1924. Communist forces held the city for several days before being driven out by the nationalist army. It is considered to be the first major battle of the Chinese Civil War.

Nanjing (Wade-Giles: Nanking)
Nanjing is a city in Jiangsu Province in eastern China, about 200 kilometers east of Shanghai. Nanjing served as the nationalist capital from 1927 until it was occupied and brutalized by the Japanese in 1937.

Nanjing Decade (or Nanking Decade)
The Nanjing Decade refers to the 10 year rule of Guomindang between 1927 (Jiang Jieshi's conquest of Nanjing and its declaration as the state capital) and 1937 (Japanese invasion of China).

Nanjing Massacre (or Rape from Nanjing)
The Nanjing Massacre refers to atrocities committed by Japanese forces during their occupation of the Guomindang capital of Nanjing in 1937-38. Estimates of deaths vary widely from 20,000 to more than 250,000.

National Assembly
The National Assembly was a democratically elected assembly convened after the Xinhai Revolution in 1913. It took 11 years but was made ineffective by division, unclear majorities, corruption and the rise of warlordism. A second national assembly was briefly convened by the Guomindang in 1948.

Nationalism is an ideology or movement that seeks freedom, independence or progress for one's own country.

Nationalist is a slang term for a member or supporter of the Guomindang or a soldier of the National Revolutionary Army.

National Party Congress (or NPC)
The National Party Congress is the legislature of the People's Republic of China, which was founded in 1954. During the Revolutionary era, the NPC consisted of nearly 3,000 representatives who were selected through graduated elections attended by assemblies from counties, provinces, and municipalities. The NPC was, at least in theory, the highest legislative body in the republic.

National Revolutionary Army (AlsoNational Army or NRA)
The National Revolutionary Army was the Guomindang's military arm. It was established in 1925 under the command of Jiang Jieshi. She took part in the northern expedition for the reunification of China, the second Sino-Japanese war, the encirclement campaigns against communist-ruled regions and the Chinese civil war.

New army
The New Army was a modernized army corps formed in the final phase of self reinforcement in 1895. The New Army was commanded by Yuan Shikai and generally acted in accordance with his political interests. Many New Army units rebelled against the Qing regime during the 1911 Xinhai Revolution.

New cultural movement
The New Culture Movement was a group of young reformist Chinese that was founded in the mid-1910. It attacked the traditions of Confucianism and called for a revision of Chinese culture to incorporate Western, modern, and secular values. Several people from this group took part in the May 4th movement and became founding members of both Guomindang and the Communist Party.

New movement of life
The New Life Movement was a social and ideological movement founded in 1934 by Jiang Jieshi and his wife Soong May-ling. The New Life movement was anti-communist and relied on Confucian values ​​and aspects of fascism. It preached the virtues of a clean and healthy life, of self-discipline, obedience, political authoritarianism, and social hierarchy.

Northern expedition (or Northern March)
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the Guomindang in 1926. Their goal was to end the rule of the warlords and reunite China. It was ordered by Jiang Jieshi and carried out by the National Revolutionary Army. The Northern Expedition achieved its goal of reunifying China and reforming the national government, despite not being able to completely eradicate warlordism or factionism.

Opium is an addictive substance belonging to the morphine family that is obtained from certain types of poppy. It was banned in China until the British forced legalization and widespread cultivation in the 1860s. By the late 1800s, about a quarter of Chinese men were opium users.

Opium Wars
The Opium Wars were two conflicts between China and Britain in 1839-42 and 1856-60. It was triggered by Chinese resistance to British trade, particularly the import and sale of opium. Both wars ended with British victories. The Opium War Treaties allowed British influence to expand rapidly within China.

A farmer is a farm laborer or a poor farmer.

People's Commune
The Volksgemeinde were collective agricultural communities formed during the great leap forward in the late 1950s. They were created by merging thousands of small farms. Individuals in the parishes lived, worked, and ate together rather than in family groups. Community workers have often faced unrealistic labor quotas, bottlenecks, famine and natural disasters.

People's newspaper
(In Chinese, Renmin Ribao) The People's newspaper is a Chinese newspaper based in Beijing and based in 1946. It appears daily in multiple languages ​​including Chinese and English. The CCP controls the staff, management and content People's newspaper a source of communist propaganda.

People's Liberation Army (or PLA)
The People's Liberation Army was the military arm of the Communist Party and the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1927 and was known as the Red Army until 1945.

People's Republic of China (or People's Republic of China)
The People's Republic of China was the official name of the Chinese nation from October 1949.

Pinyin is a Romanization system developed in China and supported by the Chinese government in 1958.

A plenary session is an assembly of representatives or members at which everyone is present. In China, the term “plenary” is used to describe meetings of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

The Politburo is the leadership committee of the Chinese Communist Party made up of five or more 11 party leaders. The Politburo was the most powerful decision-making body in the party and, since 1949, in China.

Political Advisory Conference (or PCC)
The Political Consultative Conference was a representative body established by the Chinese Communist Party in September 1949. It consisted of representatives from several left and democratic parties, although it was dominated by the Communist Party. The PCC acted as a provisional or temporary legislature and drafted the constitution at the same time. It was disbanded in 1954.

Project 571
Project 571 was the numeric code name of an act allegedly led by Lin Biao against Mao Zedong in 1971.

The Qing was China's last imperial dynasty. The Qing emperors ruled from 1644 until the abdication of Emperor Puyi in 1912.

The Queue was a male hairstyle, consisting of a long braid and a shaved forehead. Originally a Manchu custom, the Queue was later made compulsory by Qing emperors. Removal of the Queue In the last few years of the Qing rule, this was a sign of resistance to the government.

Railway Protection Movement(or Railway Protection League)
The Railway Protection Movement was a political group formed in Sichuan in 1911 to oppose the Qing government's proposed nationalization of private railways. His activities instigated other anti-Qing groups and helped spark the 1911 Xinhai Revolution.

Rape from Nanjing (see Nanjing Massacre)

The rectification was a political movement in Yenan initiated by Mao Zedong in 1942. The rectification aimed to identify and eradicate suspected right-wing elements within the Communist Party.It was also used to isolate and remove Mao's opponents and challengers to his power.

Red Army
The Red Army was the CCP's military arm. It was founded by Zhu De in 1927 during the Nanchang uprising against the Guomindang forces. The number of the Red Army rose from 5,000 in 1929 to 200,000 in 1933, but their numbers were decimated by the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Second United Front, the Red Army was integrated into the National Revolutionary Army. The renamed Eighth Route and New Fourth armies used guerrilla tactics to undermine the Japanese, but also to consolidate communist soil. The Red Army was renamed the People's Liberation Army in 1946.

Red guards
The Red Guards were populist groups formed during the Cultural Revolution in the mid-1960s. The vast majority of its members were secondary and university students. The Red Guards were known for their loyalty and public veneration of Mao Zedong, as well as for harassing, intimidating and condemning suspicious right-wingers.

Re-education (or Re-education through work)
"Re-education" describes the use of imprisonment and forced labor in dealing with political opponents. The communist regime began re-education in the mid-1950s. It was expanded during the anti-right movement of 1957-59. Most people who have been "transformed" have been detained without a hearing, trial, or term of imprisonment.

A republic is a political system in which executive power rests with a president rather than an emperor or monarch. The first Chinese republic was established in February 1912 with the abdication of the Qing Emperor Puyi.

Republic of China (AlsoRepublic of China in exile or ROC)
The Republic of China is the official name of the Taiwanese government founded by Jiang Jieshi and the Guomindang in December 1949. It claimed to be mainland China's legitimate government.

Revitalization of Chinese society
The Revive China Society was a nationalist party that Sun Yixian founded in Hawaii in 1894. It later merged with other nationalist groups to form the Guomindang.

"Rights" is a term given to members of the Communist Party or any other person suspected of supporting conservative, capitalist, or counter-revolutionary ideas. Rights were targeted during the anti-right movement (1957-59), the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), and at other times in the new regime.

Romanization is a system of writing Chinese words and phrases so that Westerners can understand them. The most common form of Romanization in the late 19th and 20th centuries was Wade-Giles. It has since been replaced by pinyin, which was supported by the Chinese government in 1958.

A rustic is a student who has taken part in the rustification or "Down to the Countryside" program.

Rustification (seeUp in the mountains, down in the countryside)

San fan (see Antis)

Second revolution
The Second Revolution was a failed attempt to overthrow Yuan Shikai's presidency. It was founded in July 1913 by Sun Yixian and his supporters in Jiangxi Province. Shikai's superior army led the rebels to flight, occupied Nanjing and forced Sun into exile.

Second United Front
The Second United Front was a brief alliance between the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party. It emerged in early 1937 after the Xian Incident and lasted until early 1946. The Second United Front was formed to provide unified and coherent resistance to Japanese aggression. However, it has been undermined by a lack of sincerity and cooperation on both sides.

Self-strengthening movement
The self-reinforcing movement was a nineteenth-century reform push aimed at empowering China through military, industrial, and economic modernization. It was triggered by the Qing government's inability to win wars or resist foreign invasions. Self-reinforcement led to some development and growth in industry, but it was largely unsuccessful and undermined by conservatives in government, incompetence and corruption.

Shanghai massacre
The Shanghai Massacre describes the persecution, arrest and execution of more than 300 communists in Shanghai on April 12th. It was carried out by the Nationalist Army on the orders of Jiang Jieshi. The Shanghai massacre ended the First United Front and drove Chinese Communists underground or into rural areas.

Shinian Luan
Chinese for "ten years of chaos", a reference to the Cultural Revolution.

Sino is a prefix used for China or Chinese, e.g. B. "Sino-Japanese" or "Sino-Soviet". Sinofication is the adaptation of Western ideology or methods to Chinese society. A sinophile is a lover of China or Chinese culture, while a sinophobe fears China and the Chinese. A sinologist is someone who specializes in the history or study of China.

Sino-Soviet border war
The Sino-Soviet border war was a time of tension and occasional clashes between Chinese and Soviet troops in 1969. It was triggered by territorial clashes in the remote northeast of China.

Sixteen points
A set of guidelines and goals for the Cultural Revolution summarized in a 1966 document published by the CCP in August.

Socialist educational movement
(In Chinese, Shehuizhuyi Jiaoyu Yundong) The socialist education movement was a mass campaign launched by Mao Zedong in 1963. Their goal was to purge or purge four areas of Chinese society: politics, bureaucracy, economy, and ideology. It served as a forerunner of the Cultural Revolution.

A soviet is a collective of workers, soldiers and peasants that is ruled or organized by communists and works according to socialist principles. The communists formed several soviets during the revolution, particularly in Jiangxi (1931-34) and Yenan (1936-48).

Speak bitterness
"Speak Bitterness" was an agrarian and land reform process carried out by the communists in the 1950s. Public gatherings took place in villages and rural areas where former landlords were interrogated, accused and testified.

Areas of Influence
Areas of China that were controlled or ruled by foreign imperialist powers in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

A. tael was a Chinese unit of measure for silver; a tael was between 35 and 38 grams of silver.

Taoism is a religious philosophy based on the teachings of Laozi that has been used in China since the 5th century BC. Are popular. Taoism emphasizes balance in all things, health, self-development and virtuous behavior.

Thought reform movement
(In Chinese, Sixiang Gaizao) The Thought Reform Movement was a mass campaign launched in 1951 to spread and promote Mao Zedong's thinking. It was based on literature, propaganda and self-criticism. It later merged with the three and five antis movements.

Three bad years (or Three years of natural disasters)
The "three bad years" are a communist euphemism for the time of food shortages and the devastating famine during the great leap forward. This implies that these bottlenecks are due to natural conditions rather than government policies.

Three principles (or Three principles of the people)
(In Chinese, sanmin zhuyi) The three principles were a political philosophy that Sun Yixian developed in the early 1900s. The three principles derived from both Chinese and Western political ideas were nationalism, democracy, and the well-being of the people. Both the Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party later claimed the three principles of Sun Yixian as part of their ideological heritage.

Three red flags
The three red banners were a propaganda campaign initiated by Mao Zedong in 1958. It promoted three key elements of Chinese socialism: the general line, the great leap forward, and the popular communities.

Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square is a large public space in Beijing that is located immediately south of the Forbidden City. Several notable political events or protests took place here, including the May 1919 Movement (1949), Mao Zedong's Declaration of the People's Republic (1976), Post-Zhou Enlai Protests (1989), and the unfortunate student demonstrations of June XNUMX.

Tibet is a disputed region in western China and borders India, Nepal and Bhutan. Tibet was ruled by the Qing Dynasty until its collapse in 1911. After that, the Tibetans drove the Chinese out and claimed independence. Tibet was occupied by the People's Republic of China in 1951. It is now an autonomous region of China.

An early nationalist revolutionary party founded by Sun Yixian in 1905. Members of the Tongmenghui participated in several uprisings, including the successful 1911 revolution. It was later incorporated into the Guomindang.

Treaty of Shimonoseki
The Treaty of Shimonoseki was an 1895 treaty that ended the First Sino-Japanese War. It handed over the Chinese territories of Taiwan, Korea, and the Liaodong Peninsula to Japan, as well as substantial compensation. This treaty caused shame and anger in China, exposed the vulnerability and weakness of the Qing Dynasty, and contributed to calls for reform.

Contract ports
Contract ports were Chinese ports open to foreign residents, as set out in several treaties signed by Qing emperors. These foreign residents were exempt from local laws and caused friction and resentment among the local Chinese.

Twenty-one claims (see 21 requirements)

Twenty-eight Bolsheviks (see 28 Bolsheviks)

Up in the mountains, down in the countryside (orRustification)
(In Chinese, Shangshan Xiaxiang Yundong) "Up to the Mountains, Down to the Countryside" or "Rustification" was a movement initiated by Mao Zedong in the late 1960s. His full name was "Up to the Mountains, Down to the Countryside". For the rustification, thousands of urban students, including many former Red Guards, had to move to rural areas and live and work among the peasants. The stated purpose was that urban students "learn from the farmers".

Wade-Giles is a system of romanization that was developed in the mid-1800s and further modified in 1892. It has been officially replaced by pinyin, but can still be found in many western countries.

A warlord is a local leader who uses a private army or militia to take control of a specific region. Warlords usually finance and feed their armies by demanding payments such as taxes or tributes from the people.

Warlord era
The era of warlords was a time of division and political fragmentation in China between 1916 and 1927. During this period, the Chinese regions were ruled by powerful warlords, while there was no effective national government.

Whampoa Military Academy (see Huangpu Military Academy)

White terror
White Terror is sometimes used to describe Jiang Jieshi's campaign of violence and persecution against Chinese Communists that began with the Shanghai massacre in 1927.

Wuchang uprising
The Wuchang Uprising relates to events on October 10, 1911, when a bomb from New Army officers who supported the revolutionary movement exploded in Wuchang. The resulting spread of revolutionary feelings and actions led to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China.

Xi'an incident
The Xi'an incident occurred in Shaanxi Province in December 1936 when Jiang Jieshi was arrested and arrested by Zhang Xueliang, a northern military commander. Zhang's father was murdered by Japanese agents, and Zhang was angry at Jiang's inadequate response to Japanese aggression. The formation of the Second United Front between Guomindang and the Chinese Communist Party was a significant result of the Xi'an incident.

Xinhai revolution
The Xinhai Revolution was the 1911 uprising that led to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the rise of Republican China.

Yan'an Soviet
The Yan'an Soviet was a communist stronghold in Shaanxi Province that was founded in late 1936. It was founded by veterans of the Long March and was the headquarters of the Chinese Communist Party until the late 1940s. In Yan'an, Mao Zedong consolidated and expanded his control over the party and developed its political philosophy (Maoism or Mao Zedong thought).

Yan'an way (or Yenan Spirit)
The Yan'an Way describes the mood of determination, ideological commitment and optimism among communist cadres in the early years of the Yan'an Soviet. It is often cited as the inspirational factor behind the communist victory of 1949.

Chinese name for the Righteous Harmony Society, or "Boxers".

The yuan was a unit of currency that was issued during the revolutionary era. It was passed by the People's Republic in 1949 and reissued in 1955 as the "Renminbi Yuan".

Zhili clique
The Zhili clique was an unstable alliance of warlords in northern China in the 1920s. Both anti-communist and anti-Japanese, the Zhili clique was defeated and dispersed by Jiang Jieshi's Northern Expedition in the mid-1920s.

Zunyi conference
The Zunyi Conference was a meeting of Chinese Communist Party leaders held in January 1935 during the Long March in southwest China. At that conference, Mao Zedong and his supporters attacked the party's existing leaders for their mistakes. This led to the discrediting of the Soviet-oriented party leaders, while Mao's own influence was increased.

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