Was Abraham a Jew or a Palestine
Jewish life in Germany
Prof. em. Dr. Arno Herzig
taught modern history at the history seminar of the University of Hamburg with a focus on the early modern period. Numerous research projects and publications, including on German-Jewish history, the history of the Reformation and confessionalization in the early modern period as well as the history of Silesia. Professor Herzig is a. Member of the Board of Trustees of Friends and Supporters of the Leo Baeck Institute and member of the Historical Commission for Silesia. Contact: [email protected]
introductionThe nomadic people "Israel" (Hebrew for God fighters) - so the name in an Egyptian source around 1200 BC. BC - was around 1300 BC. Settled down. Twelve tribes, to be understood as large clan associations, settled in the mountains of Judea (middle mountainous country of today's Israel and southern West Bank) as well as in Galilee (essentially today's northern Israel). They differed from the rest of the peoples by their belief in a single and invisible God. According to Jewish tradition, God renewed his Abrahamic covenant with the people of Israel on Mount Sinai and revealed his teaching to the prophet Moses (13th century BC), laid down in the Torah, the basis for faith and the order of life. Under the pressure of the hostile neighboring peoples, including the Philistines and Canaanites, the twelve Jewish tribes united more closely.
Around 1000 BC They formed a kingdom. The second king, David of the tribe of Judah (from whose name the term "Jew" is derived), conquered Jerusalem, and his son Solomon expanded it into the center with the First Temple. After Solomon's death (around 928 BC) the kingdom split into a northern kingdom (Israel) and a southern kingdom (Judah). The Kingdom of Israel succumbed in 721 BC. The onslaught of the Assyrians, while the Kingdom of Judah existed over 100 years longer. From different traditions in the 7th century BC The Pentateuch - the Greek name of the Torah - compiled in writing.
587 BC The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar conquered the Kingdom of Judah, destroyed the First Temple and carried off the elite of the people, nobles and priests, but also simple craftsmen to Babylon. Here the Torah received its final form and became the spiritual and spiritual center of the Jewish people in exile, which thereby preserved their identity. In the centuries that followed, further books (prophets, seals, chronicles) were added to the Torah, all of which are considered the holy scriptures of the Jews. When the Persians under Cyrus II. When Babylon was conquered, the Jews were allowed to return to their old homeland. However, a number of them stayed in Babylon and formed their own Jewish center here in the centuries that followed.
The returnees built around 500 BC In Jerusalem the Second Temple, which was magnificently remodeled under King Herod shortly before the turn of the century and is therefore also known as the Herodian Temple. Its remains form the present-day Western Wall. The Hellenization attempts of the Hellenistic supremacy of the Seleucids, which in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC In the Middle Ages, members of a priestly family resisted, called Maccabees after the nickname Maccabees (= hammer). In the Maccabees' revolt from 167 to 142 BC Judea was able to assert itself as a kingdom of its own, ruled by priest-kings. 63 BC The Roman general Pompey conquered the Seleucid Empire. The Romans established a new dynasty over Judea, descended from King Herod the Great (73-4 BC).
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