Nomadic Bedouins usually castrate male camels


→ dyeing / dyeing; → dyes; → yarn; → fur / fur; → Leather / leather processing; → jewelry; → footwear; → Weaving / weaving

→ nudity

Clothing serves to protect people, but also has an important social function. That is why it is also referred to as “social skin”. With poor or pompous, erotic or conservative clothing, people define themselves in their relationship with other people and in society. Above all, they use them to signal which group and which status they belong or want to belong to (→ hairstyle; → jewelry; → tattoo).

1.1. raw materials

The most common raw materials used in textile production are flax, sheep's wool and hemp. In addition, there are materials that are rarely used in clothing production, e.g. shell silk / byssos (material of the Mediterranean mussel obtained from mussel anchor threads Pinna nobilis Linnaeus), Goat hair (→ goat) and camel hair (→ camel).

1.1.1. flax

The flax plant (lat. linum usitatissimum, literally: "extremely useful, versatile linen") has been in the Middle East since the 8th millennium BC. Known. In Israel / Palestine → flax has been used since the 5th millennium BC. Cultivated. However, the material did not find its way into the fashion sector of the Levant until the 8th century BC. At this time it is biblical (פֵּשֶׁתpešæt; cf. λίνον linon) as clothing material of the upper class (Lev 13,47,48,52,59; Dtn 22,11; Jer 13,1; Ez 40,3; Ez 44,17-19; Prov 31,13; cf.Pro 31,22).

Flax needs nutrient-rich, calcareous soil with uniform moisture. It is therefore possible to grow it in the mountainous regions of Israel with its humid to sub-humid climates. The flax plant can be used as a whole. However, the material required for textile production is only obtained from the stem of the plant.

The linen made from flax is characterized by its high tear resistance and ability to crease. Linen is comfortable to wear in the heat of the day, as the fiber cools and absorbs sweat well (Ez 44,17f.). Due to the rather complicated manufacturing process of linen (see below), especially socially higher-ranking personalities could probably afford this material.

1.1.2. Sheep wool

Since the domestication of the → sheep in the area of ​​the fertile crescent already existed before 9,000 BC. The handling and processing of sheep's wool (צֶמֶרṣæmær / πόκος pókos) of course at the time of the Old Testament. It is the predominantly white wool from fat-tailed sheep (Ri 6,37-39). The use of this material is so natural that it is only mentioned 16 times in the Masoretic text (Lev 13.47f.52.59; Dtn 22.11; Judge 6.37; 2 Kings 3.4; Isa 1.18; Isa 51 , 8; Ez 27,18; Ez 34,3; Ez 44,17; Hos 2,7.11; Ps 147,16; Prov 31,13).

Clothing was primarily made from the wool of the family's sheep. Each family should have owned around 10 sheep or goats to supply milk and other animal products. Those who owned only one sheep were considered extremely poor (2 Sam 12: 3, cf. 1 Sam 25: 2).

Since sheep's wool has good thermoregulatory properties, can absorb a lot of moisture and is air-permeable, woolen clothing helps to make the heat of the day and the coolness of the night bearable (Prov 31:21; Job 31:20). The frizz of the hair is also the reason why woolen clothing, unlike linen clothing, does not wrinkle. Even after heavy use, the woolen hair jumps back to its original shape. So in a society where clothing is subject to high demands, woolen clothing is beneficial

A garment made of wool can also be shaped by pulling it into the desired shape while it is damp. With strong fulling of damp wool, the scales of the individual swollen wool hairs get caught in one another; this is how the wool becomes matted.

1.1.3. hemp

Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. It originates from the Far East and has been abundantly planted because it is easy and inexpensive to grow. It was also used to make clothes. There is clear evidence of this from Israel / Palestine only since the discovery of Z-spun hemp threads from the 9th century BC. Chr. In Tell Dēr ‘Allā (→ Sukkot [Tell the Alla]; Coordinates: 2088.1782; N 32 ° 11 '46' ', E 35 ° 37' 15 '') in the 1980s. So far no Hebrew term could be clearly assigned to the plant.

Hemp clothing is said to be robust, weatherproof, tear-resistant, highly durable, breathable, moisture-regulating and cooling in summer. In winter, however, hemp warms much better than cotton, which was only produced in the 3rd century BC. Became known. Hemp can absorb 8 times more water than cotton without feeling wet. In addition, hemp clothing has the ability to block 95% of UV radiation. Hemp clothing also made it possible to cheaply imitate clothing of the upper class.

1.2. Processing of raw materials

1.2.1. linen

Flax has been cultivated and processed since the Chalcolithic. To do this, the seed pods are separated from the stalk. The flax tufts are pulled over a large comb and then ferment ("roast") in water until the flax becomes brittle. During the subsequent “breaking” and “swinging” process, the fibers are removed from existing wood particles and other impurities. When "hacking", the flax is pulled through the prongs of the hackling boards, whereby initially coarser, widely spaced prongs are used, then finer and narrower prongs are used. Gradually you get finer and finer fibers that can finally be spun into linen thread.

In antiquity, flax was spun by men, while women were engaged in wool spinning; but women also worked in flax processing (cf. Isa 19,9; Prov 31,13). In the post-exilic period, the textiles made by women at home were not only produced for their own use, but also put on the market (Prov. 31: 21-24). These are of such high quality that Canaanite traders can buy them up and resell them.

1.2.2. Sheep wool

There are few statements in the Old Testament about the manufacture of fabrics. In the domestic sector, women process the raw material further (Ex 35.25; Ri 16.13ff .; Spr 31.22), but weaving in the commercial sector is done by male weavers: According to Ex 35.25f.35, skilled women spin colored fibers and goat hair; these are then made by a weaver (אֹרֵג’Oreg) after the introduction of a "designer" (חֹשֵׁבḥošev) processed into fabric, which is made by a "multicolored weaver" (רֹקֵםroqem) is embroidered in color.

The sheep were washed before shearing (Hhld 4,2; Hhld 6,6; cf. Isa 1,18; Ps 147,16; → water consumption). Their fur was then so light that the teeth of the beloved in the → Song of Songs can be compared with him (Hhld 4,2). Then the wool was carded; the individual tufts of fibers are pulled apart so that dirt particles can fall out or be plucked out more easily. The fibers are then combed in order to obtain a uniform yarn; the staple fibers are oriented in one direction and the short fibers are separated from the longer ones at the same time.

Fig. 1 The turning of the spindle rod.

To make the roving, the woman pulls a piece of wool out of a larger flake with her right hand and begins to pull these few hairs out into a thinner thread with her fingers and twist it at the same time. This process continues continuously. The resulting roving then falls into a parked work basket.

During the actual spinning, the material is pulled out and rotated until a fine thread is created. This process takes place with the hand spindle, which usually consists of a spinning rod and a slid-on spindle whorl (→ yarn).

Fig. 2 Twine twist S and Z and twisting six threads.

In order to make the resulting thread tear-resistant, it is twisted, i.e. two or more spun threads are twisted around each other and twisted together - sometimes with the help of a spinning bowl (see below). To do this, the beginnings of the thread are twisted together and attached to the spindle. This is set in rotation against the spinning direction. This creates a strong, hard-wearing thread that can be further processed. A distinction is made between Z-spun yarn (spun clockwise) and S-spun yarn (rotated counter-clockwise).

In Israel / Palestine, twisting has been practiced as early as the 7th millennium BC. Occupied. In Naḥal Ḥēmār (coordinates: 1854.0611; N 31 ° 08 '30' ', E 35 ° 22' 20 '') threads were found in S and Z spinning as well as in Netîv Hagdūd (coordinates: 1922.1550; N 31 ° 59 '17.6' ', E 35 ° 26' 41.4 '') and in the caves of the North Judean desert.

1.2.3. hemp

As a vegetable fiber, hemp can be processed in the same way as flax.

1.3. Manufacture of yarn

1.3.1. Spinning devices (spindles, spindle bars and spindle whorls)

Fig. 3 Spindle from the Late Bronze Age II (Megiddo; around 1200 BC).

A spindle consists of an axis as the center of rotation (→ yarn). The rotation is stabilized by thickening the rod or a whorl. If the spindle whorl sits at the lower or upper end of the spindle, it is roughly divided into head and foot spindles. The spindles preserved in the ancient Orient usually have a diameter between 3 and 8 mm and a length of 20-30 cm.

Spindles are usually made from bone or ivory. Metal spindles cause the roving to break due to their weight and are therefore unsuitable. A spindle bar has a device for guiding the thread, e.g. a groove, a thickening or a hook, in order to wind the thread as precisely as possible onto the bar.

Fig. 4 Spinning whorls with a biconic or double-conical shape.

The whorl is usually made of clay, stone (e.g. basalt as in → Hazor [coordinates: 2035.2693; N 33 ° 01 '05.65' ', E 35 ° 34' 08.59 ''] or Kinneret / Tell el-‘Orēme [Coordinates: 2008.2528; N 32 ° 52 '10 ", E 35 ° 32' 27"]), limestone or bone. It must be round and have the perforation as precisely as possible in the middle so that it prevents uneven rotation. Since the spindles have different diameters, the holes in the whorls are also of different radius. The weight of the spindle affects the spinnable thread thickness. There is a tendency to spin fine threads with light spindles, whereas heavy spindles are used for spinning coarse threads or twisting several threads. According to the shape, three spindle whorls can be distinguished: whorls with a convex outline, in disc shape or biconical or double-conical. Work with the hand spindle can be carried out inside and outside the house, while standing and walking. Therefore whorls are being rediscovered almost everywhere in archaeological finds.

1.3.2. Spinning bowls

Fig. 5 Twisting several yarns with a spinning bowl.

So-called spinning bowls are specific spinning devices in Egypt and Palestine, which were made from the 14th century to around the 7th century BC. Were in use. They were used to make durable yarn. To do this, the spindles with the yarn that has already been spun are placed in a spinning bowl and the loose end of the thread is pulled through the bow at the bottom of the bowl. The threads can now be twisted together without them becoming tangled with one another. This creates a strong, hard-wearing thread that can be processed further.

1.4. Manufacture of fabrics

1.4.1. Loom

Fig. 6 Lying loom.

The size of the loom determines the length and width of the fabric to be created. For the outer clothing, which was mainly worn during the royal era, you needed twice the length of the measure from the shoulder to the ankle. The lying loom. With a lying loom, the warp threads are stretched between the two trees (back tree C and cloth tree B). The warp threads (L) are as long as the resulting fabric should be, and stretched across the width of the trees that the fabric should have. The dimensions of the textile to be produced are therefore already determined during weaving.

The trees are anchored in the ground with pegs so that they cannot slip and form a rectangle. The stranded rod (D) rests on two stones; loops (E) are attached to it by cords (F) that pull every second warp thread upwards. The separating bar (G) behind it lifts the other half of the warp threads. With a shuttle or weft insertion rod (J), the weft thread is pushed through the warp threads and pressed against the already woven cloth (N) with the weaving sword and with the help of the tear hook (K). When inserting the next weft thread, the other warp threads must be lifted with the separating rod. The alternating running of the warp and weft threads creates a cloth in the so-called plain weave, the simplest type of weaving.

Until a few years ago, Bedouins in the Levant used lying looms to produce fabrics up to 16 meters in length. This type of frame requires a lot of floor space that is not available within a house. That is why the standing loom was developed, which works on the same principle, but does not require as much space.

Fig. 7 Weight weaving frame. The weight weaving frame. With the horizontal loom, the warp threads on the cloth tree are tensioned with the help of loom weights (see below). In the Iron Age II, people in the Mediterranean were familiar with working on the horizontal loom. Since complete looms have not yet been excavated, the location of a loom can only be inferred from individual charred pieces of wood or traces of paint from burned wood. Finding loom weights (e.g. in Tell Dēr ‘Allā; → Sukkot) makes it easier to recognize such a location.

Fig. 8 Circular loom. The circular loom. People in Iron Age II must have been just as familiar with the circular loom as they were with the horizontal loom, as evidenced by the chiton (see below) and the closed peplos (see below). This loom stands upright in the room so that the warp threads can be worked on from both sides. Two beams are suspended in a stable framework. The upper one is rigid, the lower one hangs in the warp threads and tensions them. For this purpose, one or two larger stone or clay weights are attached to both sides of this tree. It is woven with two strand rods hanging to the front. The stranded rods are pulled out alternately and each open an artificial compartment. The beginning and the end of the fabric form one and the same cord. The finished fabric “wanders” around the loom. If the sheds can no longer be opened towards the end of the weaving process, the weft thread must be inserted with the needle. The result is a tube that is twice as long as the fabric made on the weight frame without a moving fabric tree.

The circular loom, as well as the horizontal and vertical loom, cannot be documented archaeologically, as the material used for it has not survived. That it existed can only be proven by means of well-woven clothing.

1.4.2. Loom weights

Fig. 9 Loom weights with a cone, pyramid or rectangular shape.

Loom weights are used to tension the warp threads that were attached to the top tree of the standing weight weaving frame. They have to be heavy enough to keep the warp threads taut, but not to break them, but also so narrow that they do not interfere with the even spacing of the threads. The finer the yarn used for weft insertion, the lighter the weaving weights can be. They can weigh between 22 and 1000 grams. Heavier weights are believed to have picked up multiple threads, as well as weights with a large hole. The weaving weights found in Israel / Palestine can be divided into three basic shapes: the cone, pyramid and rectangular shape, the spherical shape as well as the triangular and disc shape (→ weaving).

1.4.3. Weft insertion rod / shuttle

The weft insertion takes place by means of a “weaving shuttle” made of wood or bone: The weft threads are moved at a right angle to the warp threads over and under them from one side of the stretched warp threads to the other and back again.So far, no finds that can be clearly assigned to this purpose have been excavated in the ancient Orient. However, objects were found in the Turkish city of Boghazkoy (the Hittite capital Hattusha) that may have been used as weaving shuttles. They are in the shape of a sword or rod with notches or grooves on the fold of the body, in which the weft thread could have been held.

1.4.4. Sewing needles

Sewing needles themselves are not mentioned in the Bible, but the handicraft of sewing is mentioned (Ez 13:18; Ecclesiastes 3: 7; see also Mt 19:24). A sewing needle is made of herringbone or bone, later made of metal, and has an eye at the end of the pin through which a thread can be passed. The opposite end of the rod tapers so that the tissue could and can easily be pierced. A find from → Hazor (coordinates: 2035.2693; N 33 ° 01 '05.65' ', E 35 ° 34' 08.59 '', sewing needles have been in use there since the Middle Bronze Age, i.e. since approx. 2000 BC) is made of bronze made, has a length of 16 cm and a diameter of approx. 0.5 cm in the upper quarter and approx. 0.3 cm in the lower quarter. It was found in a room south of the city's citadel (Areal B, locus 3156) in Layer VB (760-740 BC). An iron sewing needle was excavated in a corridor near this site (area B, locus 3194). It has a length of approx. 10.5 cm and a diameter of approx. 0.7 cm in the lower area and approx. 0.4 cm in the upper area below the eye.

Sewing needles are not to be confused with toggle pins. They were mainly used until the 11th century BC. Chr. Used to hold the wrapped and draped strips of fabric around the body. These special clothes needles are documented e.g. for the Middle Bronze Age in Israel / Palestine, e.g. in → Jericho / Tell es-Sulṭān (Coordinates: 1921.1420; N 31 ° 52 '15 ", E 35 ° 26' 39"). Brooches, the forerunners of today's safety pins, are also used.

1.4.5. Completion of a piece of clothing Hem. A hem is created by sewing around the edge of the fabric. To reinforce this, it could be sewn around with a border.

Fig. 10 Fringes as a textile finish. Fringes or tassels. Fringed decorations are created after the woven textile has been removed from the loom by twisting some of the warp threads hanging out of the fabric with one another so that they end in a knot. Another way to hold the warp threads is to tie them in tassels. Some of the warp threads hanging out of the fabric are wound around with a further thread with a few turns and finally knotted. During the royal period, the robes of the middle to upper society of Israel / Palestine are decorated with fringes or tassels.

Clothing includes everything that a person wears on their body. The Hebrew and Greek terms בֶּגֶד used in the Biblebægæd and ἱμάτιον himátion or ἱματισμός himatismós denote clothing in general and can be translated with the comprehensive, neutral German word “Kleidungsstück” or “Gewand”. In the following, the everyday, not the special, clothing worn in cult or combat, for example, is presented.

2.1. Clothing worn by men and women

2.1.1. Linen shirt dress

Fig. 11 Priest in a wide shirt dress with mock sleeves.

כֻּתֹּנֶתkuttonæt or כְּתוֹנֶתkətônæt refers to a linen garment that is pulled over the head and is so wide that no attached sleeves are necessary to cover the arms (so-called dummy sleeves). To tame the fullness of the material, a belt is tied around the waist, so that from waist height the garment extends in folds down to the ankles. It is administered by men at the royal court (2Sam 15:32) and in the priesthood (Ex 28.4.39f .; Ex 29.5.8; Ex 39.27; Ex 40.14; Lev 8.7.13; Lev 10.5; Lev 16 , 4; Esr 2.69; Neh 7.69.71). Originally it is the clothing of the shepherd and small cattle nomads, e.g. Joseph (Gen 37,2).

To כֻּתֹּנֶתkuttonæt / כְּתוֹנֶתkətônæt see Gen 3:21; Gen 37,; Ex 28,4.39.40; Ex 29,5.8; Ex 39.27; Ex 40.14; Lev 8: 7, 13; Lev 10.5; Lev 16.4; 2 Sam 13: 18f .; 2Sam 15.32; Isa 22:21; Hi 30.18; Hhld 5.3; Esr 2.69; Neh 7,69.71; see Akkadian kitītu