Why are most US lawmakers bicameral
Bicameral system , also Called bicameral system , a system of government in which the legislature is two houses. The modern bicameral system dates back to the beginnings of constitutional government in England in the 17th century and to the later 18th century in continental Europe and the United States.
History and Development
The English Parliament became bicameral in recognition of the distinction between the nobility and clergy and the common people. When British colonies were founded in America, the colonial assemblies were also bicameral, as two interests were to be represented: the motherland by the governor on the council and the colonists by their elected deputies. After the 1776 Declaration of Independence, bicameral systems were established in all states but Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. One-chamber legislations were established in these three states, but were replaced by two-chamber legislations in 1789, 1790 and 1830. All of the new states that were later admitted to the union entered with two-house legislation.
Although the Continental Congresses and the Confederation Congress were unicameral, the Constitutional Convention of 1787 decided that the new national legislature should consist of two branches in order to preserve the identity of each state, preserve the influence of the smaller states, and protect the interests of property .
With the expansion of constitutional government around the world, most countries set up bicameral legislations on the English or US model, with large first chambers being selected by popular vote and smaller second chambers whose members are either elected or appointed (or in some cases determined) were by inheritance) and often represented political subdivisions such as the Swiss cantons. The bicameral plan is usually found in federal governments such as the United States, Australia, Brazil, and Canada, as well as in quasi-federal governments such as Germany and India.
Two-chamber systems versus single-chamber systems
Theoretically, this dualism is justified in the two-chamber system as an application of the principle of checks and balances. A two-chamber system is desirable in order to avoid hasty and strict laws, restrict democracy and secure advice. Although the bicameral system continued to prevail in the twentieth century, there were reactions to it, with unicameral councils or commissions dominating in American cities, often two-chambered in the nineteenth century. Widespread dissatisfaction with American legislators led to numerous proposals for a unicameral system in the second decade of the 20th century, but in 1934 a unicameral legislature was passed by Nebraska (effective from 1937) was the only departure from the bicameral system among the US states .
Constitutional trends after World War II reflected a growing preference for the unicameral system in non-states around the world. National unicameral legislative bodies have been set up in many European and several Latin American countries.
In Great Britain, where the House of Lords had been weakened, and in France, where the Council of the Republic (renamed the Senate in 1958 on the basis of the Fifth Republic) was practically powerless, governments were practically unicameral. A unified system of government does not imply a unicameral legislature. Modern constitutional states often retain two chambers, although the bicameral system has declined.
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