Meth is much more toxic than Adderall

amphetamine

Pep is a redirect to this article. For the Dutch producer and rapper, see Johnny Pepp.
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amphetamine (alpha-M.ethylphenethylamine, also Phenylisopropylamine or speed) is a synthetically produced substance from the group of phenylethylamines with a stimulating effect. It is used as a medicinal substance and consumed as a non-hallucinogenic intoxicant (drug).

Amphetamine is the parent compound of the substance class of the same name, to which many psychotropic substances belong, including MDMA and naturally occurring ephedrine. It is an indirect sympathomimetic and thus has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. Because of its stimulating and euphoric effect, amphetamine is used as an intoxicant. The trade in and possession of amphetamines without a permit is a criminal offense in Germany and most European countries. It usually becomes illegal under the name speed and pep offered.

overview

The first synthesis of amphetamine was achieved in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu at the Humboldt University in Berlin.[7] In 1927 the American chemist Gordon Alles coined the name amphetamine, derived from the now outdated chemical name alpha-M.ethylphenethylamine. It is one of the wake-up amines (amines with a "waking up" effect).

Originally used as a bronchospasmolytic and for weight control, it is now only used medically for the treatment of narcolepsy and attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADD / ADHD) due to its addictive potential and other side effects, but the number of amphetamine prescriptions is increasing, especially in the USA in the form of the finished product Adderall steadily for years. In Germany and most other countries, however, other drugs with similar effects are preferred for these indications: methylphenidate for ADD and modafinil for narcolepsy. The amphetamine derivative fenfluramine had been in use as an appetite suppressant since the 1960s and was withdrawn from the market in 1997 due to side effects that in rare cases can be life-threatening. Amphetamine is also used as a doping agent.

As an intoxicant, amphetamine is particularly widespread in the party scene due to its effects such as suppressing tiredness and increasing self-confidence. The amount of amphetamines seized in the European Union has increased more or less steadily since 1985; while a certain stagnation was reached from 1999, the number continued to rise in the Scandinavian countries.[8][9]

Development and dissemination

Before 1900 to 1950

  • January 18, 1887: Lazar Edeleanu was the first to synthesize amphetamine in the course of his doctoral thesis.
  • In 1910 the English physiologists Barger and Dale discovered the chemical similarity of amphetamine to adrenaline.
  • In 1927, Gordon Alles coined the term "amphetamine".
  • The psychoactivity of the substance was recognized for the first time in the late 1920s; it was supposed to replace the naturally occurring ephedrine (from ephedra) as a cheap synthetic substitute.
  • In 1932 Smith, Kline & French brought amphetamine in the form of the sulfate salt onto the market as an amphetamine inhaler as an asthma drug, and the drug is also introduced in Germany, there as amphetamines.
  • 1934 In Germany, research began in 1934 in the Berlin Temmler works on a further process for the production of methamphetamine.
  • 1937: In October the Temmler employees Werner Dobke and Friedrich Keil submitted a patent for this purpose, which on October 31, 1937 became German Reich Patent No. 767186 was granted. Methamphetamine was marketed by Temmler-Werke in 1938 under the brand name Pervitin® and manufactured until 1988
  • In 1937, students at the University of Minnesota discovered that amphetamine was effective at driving fatigue and used it to study through nights.
  • In the 1930s, amphetamine became more widespread as a hay fever remedy, for colds and later for all possible indications such as depression, Parkinson's, narcolepsy, impotence and others.
  • in the Second World War it was in Germany in the methamphetamine variant as pervitin, in the United States as Amphetamines, Great Britain and Japan were used on a significant basis in the army to keep soldiers alert, motivated and aggressive.
  • In 1941, due to the increasing number of cases of abuse and addiction, it was made subject to the Reich Opium Act in Germany, which regulated traffic with the substance.
  • In 1948, Glaxo-Wellcome launched Dexedrine (up to 15 mg dextro-amphetamine per capsule) as an anti-ADD drug.

1950 until today

  • Amphetamines and abuse reached enormous proportions in Japan in the 1950s, with over two million users believed to have occurred. In Europe (especially Sweden) and the USA, the number of cases of abuse is also increasing rapidly.
  • In 1959 there were first reports of users in the USA who inject the contents of the Benzedrine inhalers, as a result of which inhalers that could be used for injection were withdrawn from the market; first cases of illegally produced amphetamine became known.
  • 1970: Amphetamine was included on Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act in the United States, making trade, possession, and manufacture illegal; it was still prescribable by a doctor.
  • until the late 1970s, amphetamine was in the form of Amphetamines relatively easily available from a doctor in Germany.
  • In the 1981 revised BtMG, amphetamine was listed in Appendix III, which makes trading, possession and production without a permit a criminal offense, but the doctor could still prescribe it. Today the (barely psychoactive) levoisomer is listed in Appendix II as non-prescribable, the racemate and the dextroisomer are still listed in Appendix III.
  • In 1994 Shire Pharmaceuticals launched Adderall (up to 30mg (±) amphetamine per tablet) as an anti-ADD drug in the United States.
  • Amphetamine continues to be used medicinally in the United States.
  • Amphetamine is widespread in the drug scene worldwide, even if the amphetamine derivative methylamphetamine (Crystal, Meth), especially in the USA, Asia and Eastern Europe, is often of greater importance.
  • Amphetamine is probably still used to improve performance in the military in various countries.

chemistry

General

The official IUPAC name is 1-phenylpropan-2-amine. Amphetamine contains a stereocenter on carbon atom C.2 and is therefore chiral. Therefore there are two enantiomers, a D- (dextro-) and an L-isomer (levoamphetamine) (see also the effect of the different enantiomers). It is a homologue of phenylethylamine. The base, a colorless to very pale yellowish, oily liquid, is sparingly soluble in water, soluble in alcohols, ethers and weak acids such as acetic acid. It reacts with alcoholically diluted sulfuric acid and forms the precipitating sulfate salt. The base has a characteristic amine odor. A burning sensation in the mucous membranes (eyes, nose) is noticed at higher air concentrations.

Industrial manufacture

There are a number of different synthesis routes. In the pharmaceutical industry, amphetamine is usually produced by condensing 1-phenyl-2-propanone (phenylacetone / P2P) with ammonia and then reducing it. This creates racemic (RS) -Amphetamine [(RS) -1-phenylpropan-2-amine], i.e. a 1: 1 mixture of (R.) -Amphetamine [(R.) -1-phenylpropan-2-amine] and (S.) -Amphetamine [(S.) -1-phenylpropan-2-amine]:

In the USA, the production volume approved by the DEA in 2000 was 15,000 kg, corresponding to 500,000,000 individual doses of 30 mg.[10]

Illegal synthesis

Illegal methamphetamine laboratory in the United States.

In illegal production, methamphetamine is obtained, for example, by reducing norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) with iodine and red phosphorus or from phenylacetone (P2P). In the past, amphetamine could also be synthesized relatively unhindered by private individuals from precursors such as phenylacetone and hydroxylamine, these chemicals were increasingly observed by the authorities, and the unauthorized manufacture and trade of phenylacetone and norephedrine was made a criminal offense (Basic Substance Monitoring Act). This created a need for illegally working producers for substitutes that were not monitored. For example, phenylacetic acid was gradually included in illegal production. For decades there have been new directions for manufacturing amphetamines using substances that are not yet suspect. The authorities finally become aware of these production methods and the cycle continues. So-called “OTC methods” (over-the-counter, English for “over-the-counter”, which means “freely available”) are therefore spreading more and more. The name stands for the extraction of required precursor substances from non-prescription drugs or other freely available goods (cleaning agents, car accessories), the release of which, unlike pure substances, cannot be effectively regulated. For example, norephedrine (PPA) was obtained from over-the-counter appetite suppressants in the United States until 2002.

Amphetamine becomes illegal mainly through the reduction of phenyl-2-nitropropene with Al (Hg) or LiAlH4 or reductive amination of phenylacetone and ammonia + Al (Hg) produced. Benzaldehyde and nitroethane or the esters of phenylacetic acid are readily available starting materials. The chemicals that arise during this production are mostly disposed of illegally: Solvents (acetone, ether, methanol and others), acids (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid) are usually dumped in containers in the open at night or emptied into rivers, sometimes also (this includes hydrogen cartridges) in Set on fire.[11] In the USA and the Netherlands, among others - both countries with high levels of illegal (meth) amphetamine production - the environmental damage caused by toxic by-products is growing in some cases into serious problems. The production of 1 kilogram of amphetamine produces 5 to 20 liters of waste, depending on the synthesis route. In addition to the quantity, the type and toxicity of the waste also depends on the particular synthesis route.[11]

pharmacology

Racemic amphetamine consists of the two stereoisomers dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine. The former provides the desired central effects and is therefore referred to as the eutomer, the latter as the distomer. (see effect of the different enantiomers)

Pharmacodynamics

The effect of D-amphetamine on the CNS consists mainly in the release of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) - the ratio is 3.5: 1 (NA: DA). In contrast, no significant release of serotonin (5HT) is observed.[12]

The release mechanism consists of three steps:

a) the influx of D-amphetamine into the presynaptic cell via the transporter

b) the release of neurotransmitters from the vesicles (storage vesicles within the cell) into the cell interior (cytosol)

c) the active transport of the transmitter from the inside of the cell into the extracellular space (synaptic gap), by means of a reversal of the direction of the transporter located in the cell membrane (inversion).[13]

In this way the extracellular transmitter level is increased. In contrast to the principle of reuptake inhibition, this happens independently of the signal impulse from the nerve cell.

The repeated intake (in quick succession) of D-amphetamine leads to a short-term development of tolerance due to tachyphylaxis. The storage vesicles in the neurons are exhausted after repeated stimulation, so that after the onset of tachyphylaxis, norepinephrine and dopamine are no longer available for release. The tachypyhlaxis does not end until a few hours later, when the storage vesicles have refilled with the neurotransmitters.

Pharmacokinetics

The plasma half-life of D-amphetamine is about ten hours, so it takes about two days for the substance to be completely eliminated from the organism. The lipid solubility is LogP = 1.799, so it is distributed preferentially in adipose tissue. Its protein binding is between 25 and 40%, the metabolism takes place in the liver by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6.[14]

toxicology

The LDLo (Lethal Dose Low, lowest published lethal dose) in humans is 1.3 mg / kg; at a body weight of 75 kg this would correspond to about 100 mg. If there is tolerance, the dose is significantly higher, so cases of single doses of 1000 mg and daily doses of up to 5000 mg are known. Experiments with monkeys showed a significantly higher relative toxicity in young animals, the LD50 in mg / kg there was about 65% to 75% below that of adult animals.[15]

Clinical effect

Amphetamine is a central sympathomimetic: it has a stimulating effect on the sympathetic nervous system in the CNS. This part of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for putting the organism into a state that is known as “fight-flight-freeze” (“fighting, fleeing, freezing”) and which is useful in life-threatening situations. Physical mechanisms that are not necessary for survival (such as hunger, thirst, feelings of tiredness and pain) are switched off. Strength, speed and libido, on the other hand, are significantly increased (primarily through adrenaline / noradrenaline) in order to allow the organism to react as efficiently as possible. The circulatory system and the body prepare for a high level of stress by increasing blood pressure and widening the bronchi so that more oxygen can be absorbed. Self-confidence is increased to euphoria (primarily through dopamine), and the aggression threshold is lowered. This is supposed to facilitate a physical defense against danger. In addition, the consciousness is strongly focused on a certain event (originally on the danger), which is also known as "tunnel vision".

10 mg Adderall tablet.

If these reactions of the body are triggered artificially by amphetamine, there are various possible uses. On the one hand, the appetite suppression, which is why various amphetamine derivatives are used as dietary agents. The reduction in the need for sleep can be used where people have to or want to perform over a long period of time, for example as shift workers, truck drivers, party-goers or soldiers. Increasing self-confidence is one reason for using amphetamines as an intoxicant. The concentration of consciousness on certain tasks makes use of medicine when using amphetamines in AD (H) D, because people with poor concentration can then concentrate longer on a task.

The purely physical effects are also used medicinally. Amphetamine was previously used as an asthma medication, as the swelling of the mucous membranes and, above all, the widening of the bronchi enable more free breathing. Today this connection can still be found in various antiallergic drugs that contain pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is an amphetamine derivative (more precisely a methamphetamine) and therefore also causes the mucous membranes to swell, which is desirable for hay fever, among other things, has only a very low central nervous psychoactive effect, which enables a significantly freer and lower-risk application, which is why amphetamine even with such an indication is no longer used.

Acute main effects

Depending on the dose and dosage form, the following effects can occur:[16][17][18]

central

  • Appetite suppression
  • Mobilization of the last reserves of strength and reduction of the need for sleep
  • Increase in self-confidence up to euphoria
  • increased alertness and ability to concentrate
  • increased urge to move
  • increased sexual desire

peripheral

  • Decongestion of the mucous membranes
  • Widening of the bronchi
  • Narrowing of the vessels

unwanted effects

Depending on the dose and dosage form, the following effects can occur:[16][17][18]

  • Pupils dilate, mouth dry
  • Increased heartbeat up to tachycardia
  • Tremor (shaking), increased muscle tone, nystagmus (eye tremors), bruxism (teeth grinding)
  • increased perspiration
  • sleep disorders
  • Weight loss, erectile dysfunction and kidney damage (with chronic consumption)
  • faster movement sequences up to agitation; Agility, restlessness, nervousness and symptoms of restless legs syndrome
  • increased willingness to take risks
  • increased need to communicate and fluency (logorrhea)
  • Triggering a drug psychosis (amphetamine psychosis)
  • Addiction

Effect of the different enantiomers

There are two enantiomers of amphetamine, of which the dextroisomer (D-amphetamine) is responsible for the main effects such as stimulation, increased concentration, appetite inhibition or increased self-confidence, while the levoisomer (L-amphetamine) is more responsible for the purely physical, peripheral effects such as expanded Pupils (mydriasis), dry mouth causing swelling of the mucous membranes and sweating. Some amphetamines like the Dexedrine® therefore only contain the dextro isomer, which results in a “cleaner” effect.In general, amphetamine (both from legal and illegal production) is otherwise always a racemate, a mixture of (slightly varying depending on the synthesis route) 50% D-amphetamine and 50% L-amphetamine, so that one hundred percent D-amphetamine preparations like Dexedrine® only have to be dosed half as high. Since this difference in the effect of the isomers occurs with almost all amphetamines, an inhaler with L-methamphetamine is freely available in the USA - unlike the racemate, this only causes the mucous membranes to swell.

Medical use

D, L-amphetamine sulfate in capsules of 10 mg.

From the beginning of the 1930s, amphetamine was initially used as a bronchodilator (a means to widen the bronchi, as it is used, for example, in asthma or respiratory diseases); its stimulating and concentration-promoting effect was still unknown.

In 1937, the psychiatrist Charles Bradley gave amphetamines to children with behavioral problems, whose disorders then improved.[19] He repeated the study in 1941. Bradley's studies are considered fundamental to psychotropic drug therapy in children.[20]

Towards the end of the 1930s, more effects of amphetamine were discovered, and with the number of new indications that resulted, so did the number of prescriptions. It was now prescribed as an asthma drug, for depression, to improve performance, for stress, colds or allergies and other diseases, which meant that amphetamine was relatively easily available through a doctor for a long time. At this time there were already combination preparations (e.g. Dexamyl®) which, in addition to amphetamine, also contained a strong sedative (mostly various barbiturates) against its side effects, a combination that is now considered less useful and risky, but was often prescribed as a remedy for stressed housewives back then. While amphetamine was used as amphetamines until the late 1970s® was (freely) prescribed in Germany, today it can only be prescribed on a narcotic drug prescription. For the treatment of attention disorders (ADHD) the partially controversial methylphenidate has prevailed in Germany, so that in the meantime there were no more amphetamine finished medicinal products in Germany. The drug has been an assassin since December 2011® with the active ingredient dexamfetamine (contained as water-soluble dexamfetamine hemisulfate) for the treatment of children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age available on the German market. In the United States, amphetamine for the drug treatment of ADHD has been on the rise for years and is being prescribed in steadily increasing numbers in place of methylphenidate, mostly as Adderall®, rarer than Dexedrine®.[10] Despite the high number of prescriptions in the United States, especially for schoolchildren, there is no accumulation of cases of abuse according to a 2001 study commissioned by the US Congress.[21]

With correct use of amphetamine derivatives, for example in attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder under medical supervision, no cases of addiction are known. The dosage at the beginning of the treatment is 5 to 10 mg / day and can be increased to 60 mg / day. On the one hand, the prescribed doses are usually much smaller than those in the case of abuse; on the other hand, in this case there is usually no euphoric effect, among other things because an oral form of consumption is always used in contrast to the otherwise common "sniffing", nasal consumption which results in a much lower approach speed. There are indications that the influx speed (the speed with which a substance reaches the brain) is very closely related to the development of addiction, which would explain the lack of addiction cases mentioned. Another indication is narcolepsy, for which Modafinil is prescribed today, which was developed as a completely new non-amphetamine-like structure type.

Non-medical use

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Amphetamines are illegally consumed in powder form or, less often, in pill form. The powder is usually absorbed through the nose, generally with a piece of paper shaped into a pulling tube, a cut off straw or a metal pulling tube, but oral, parenteral and rectal consumption are also possible (see below). Compared to cocaine, the prices are rather low. The European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that in 2009 the usual retail price of amphetamines in half of the reporting countries in Europe was between 5 and 30 euros per gram.[22] According to the Federal Criminal Police Office, around 1,200 kilograms of amphetamines were seized in Germany in 2010, and 33,482 crimes were related to (meth) amphetamines and their derivatives.[23] Amphetamine, mostly used by consumers as speed, pep or Amphe is mainly consumed in the techno scene in Germany and Europe in order to be able to endure the long nights. In other areas (especially Asia - there, however, methamphetamine (“Yaba”)) - consumption is spreading through broader sections of the population, workers, managers and housewives increase their productivity as a result. It wakes you up, creates a slight euphoria and enables hours of dancing or other energy-sapping activities, be they physical or mental in nature. After consumption there is often a feeling of nervousness and exhaustion ("turn off"); the body demands the urgently needed rest, but the not yet fully degraded amphetamine prevents this. For this reason, it is common to calm down ("smoke down") with cannabis, for example. Sometimes stronger sedatives are also used (mostly benzodiazepines such as Rohypnol® (Flunitrazepam) or Valium® (Diazepam)) taken to calm down. The suppression of symptoms by means of benzodiazepines is very dangerous, as the consumer can get into a vicious circle of alternating taking of activating (amphetamine) and calming (benzodiazepine) drugs, with each drug being intended to combat the after-effects and side-effects of the other.

In addition to nasal consumption, amphetamine can also be consumed orally (through the mouth), whereby it is usually wrapped in cigarette paper ("bombs" or "boobs") or dissolved in drinks. While oral ingestion is the common dosage form for medical use, it is otherwise less common. This is probably due to the fact that the effect occurs more slowly with oral consumption and there is no overwhelming effect ("kick") due to the slower influx. However, the overall effect lasts longer. Amphetamine has an oral bioavailability of 25%. It can also be consumed by injection. However, this form of consumption is rarely found, which may be due, among other things, to non-acceptance and the resulting social control in the typical amphetamine consumer scene.

In contrast to methamphetamine ("crystal"), it is not possible to smoke amphetamine. The reason for this is that the amphetamine salt that occurs most frequently on the black market, amphetamine sulfate, has such a high boiling point that it would decompose beforehand, i.e. be destroyed. Theoretically smokable are the amphetamine hydrochloride, which is hygroscopic and therefore seldom available on the black market, and the amphetamine base, which have a significantly lower boiling point; However, as with almost all amphetamine derivatives (and in contrast to crystalline cocaine base / crack, for example), the base is liquid and in this form is almost never available on the black market.

If the amphetamine is suddenly discontinued in long-term users, withdrawal symptoms occur. Symptoms of amphetamine withdrawal are: lethargy, depression and even suicidal tendencies, apathy, anxiety and sleep disorders. Muscle pain (myalgia), abdominal pain, and excessive appetite are also possible. The symptoms only peak after two to three days and then slowly subside. In contrast to benzodiazepine withdrawal, for example, amphetamine withdrawal is physically harmless. The aforementioned symptoms are possible extremes, but amphetamine withdrawal can usually be described as a state of physical indolence and a general feeling of discomfort.

Dismantling and verification times

Amphetamines are almost completely absorbed in the intestine and then distributed unevenly throughout the body. The highest concentration is found in adipose tissue. After enzymatic breakdown in the liver, amphetamines are excreted in the urine as water-soluble acids. About 90 percent of the ingested drug is eliminated within three to four days. The amount of excretion depends on the pH of the urine. The more acidic the urine (e.g. from ingestion of ascorbic acid or acidic fruit juices), the faster the excretion.

Stretch of amphetamine

The white-yellowish powder, which is illegal to the end user as speed is only made up of a small proportion of amphetamine (mostly only 30%), very rarely methamphetamine can also be added. The extenders make up a good 70% of the mixture, which is usually lactose (milk sugar) (in 78% of the samples), caffeine (65%), glucose (8%) and, more rarely, the analgesic paracetamol, magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or mannitol.[24] In order to drown out the bitter taste, speed is mixed with aromas, which, however, hardly plays a role in the drug market.

In contrast to the European countries, it is much more common in the USA that methamphetamine is added, which is probably due to the better availability of the starting materials required for the synthesis (ephedrine preparations were available without a prescription in the USA until March 2005).

There speed is a mixture of various substances with an unknown amphetamine content, there is always the risk of an overdose for the consumer, as well as the intolerance of extenders.

paste

Amphetamine is also illegally traded as a “paste”, which often smells slightly damp and lumpy like amine (smell of fish that is beginning to rot). The mass is usually a mixture of base and salt.

Risks, side effects and risk of addiction

  • Side effects include increased blood pressure and pulse rate, dry mucous membranes, dilated pupils, loss of appetite (which can also be counted as the main effect), urinary retention (inability to empty the bladder despite the urge to urinate) and a laxative effect.
  • At higher dosages, compulsive movements or even cramps in the chewing and cheek muscles can occur. The consequences of this can often be felt days after consumption.
  • Short-term consequences are restlessness, anxiety and insomnia. Amphetamines can cause severe psychological dependence. There is a risk of amphetamine psychosis.
  • Since the amphetamine content in speed is never exactly known, overdosing can occur (a lethal dose in a person weighing 75 kg can be around 100 mg of amphetamine).
  • Since amphetamines switch the body into an "emergency mode", important signals such as hunger, thirst and tiredness are suppressed. A possible resulting neglect of these needs leads to physical and mental depletion due to lack of nutrients and sleep. The consequences are increased susceptibility to infections, physical / mental weakness, etc. Optical illusions and even hallucinations can also occur due to the lack of sleep.
  • Social obligations (family, school, job, relationship) can be neglected.
  • As with all illegally acquired drugs, it is always uncertain what the substance is composed of; it often contains other psychoactive substances such as caffeine or ephedrine, neutral excipients such as lactose or possibly also highly effective substances such as methamphetamine. Drugchecking is therefore very important for risk reduction.
  • If amphetamines are sniffed frequently, damage to the nasal septum can result, similar to cocaine.
  • The risk of addiction depends on genetic factors and the psychosocial situation of the person. In the animal model, some individuals were able to regulate their amphetamine consumption flexibly for life, in 50% on the other hand, after a certain period of time, a dependency with a massive increase in dose and acquisition of a tolerance occurred, which persisted even after forced withdrawal.[25]
  • At higher doses, erectile dysfunction can occur in men despite the increased sexual desire.
  • After consumption, the erectile tissue may contract in men, which usually subsides within 1 to 2 days.
  • There is increasing evidence that the use of amphetamines significantly increases the risk of later developing Parkinson's disease.[26]

Neurotoxic potential

Amphetamines are neurotoxic and therefore lead to an irreversible destruction of brain cells, especially if they are used continuously. As is known from the degradation of brain matter through chronic alcohol consumption, substance-induced dementia development can occur. As a result, among other things, a deterioration in the ability to remember and think can occur.[27]

Psychological dangers

Amphetamine users have a comorbidity of 25% compared to the significantly lower risk of developing schizophrenia in the general population of 1%. Amphetamine use increases the risk of developing schizophrenic psychosis by a factor of 25. In addition, there are severe fluctuations in affect between unadapted euphoria and severe depression due to consumption.[28]

Legal status

In the Federal Republic of Germany, amphetamine is listed in the BtMG: in the form of the racemate or dextroamphetamine in Appendix III (prescribable),[29] as levoamphetamine in Appendix II (not prescribable; see also BtMVV).[30] Trading and possession without a prescription or permit is a criminal offense. In the US, amphetamine is recorded in Schedule II of Controlled Substances Actwhich criminalizes possession and trade without a prescription or authorization.[31] It is approved there for the indications narcolepsy and AD (H) D.

Since 1998 the official spelling has been in the Federal Republic of Germany Amfetamine, it has thus been adapted to the WHO nomenclature.[32]

In the Federal Republic of Germany, the doctor may prescribe 600 mg of amphetamine for a patient within 30 days. In justified individual cases and while maintaining the necessary safety of narcotics traffic, the doctor may deviate from this regulation with regard to the maximum amount for a patient who is undergoing continuous treatment. Such a prescription is marked with the letter "A.“To be marked.[33] Until the new version of the BtMVV of January 20, 1998 (came into force on February 1, 1998), the doctor was allowed to prescribe up to 200 mg of amphetamine (i.e. a maximum of 6 grams per month) for a patient on one day.[34] There is no maximum amount for dextroamphetamine.

Trade names

Monopreparations

Attentin (D) with the active ingredient dexamfetamine hemisulfate

literature

  • Walter Reginald Bett and others: Amphetamine in clinical medicine. Springer, Berlin 1956.
  • Sean Connolly: Amphetamines. Heinemann Library, Chicago 2000, ISBN 1-57572-254-2.
  • Hans Cousto: Mixed drug use. The most important things in brief about the most common (party) drugs. Nightshade, Solothurn 2003, ISBN 3-03788-119-4.
  • Hans-Christian Dany: Speed. A society on drugs. Edition Nautilus, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 3-89401-569-1.
  • A. K. Cho, David S. Segal: Amphetamines and Its Analogs. Psychopharmacology, Toxicology, and Abuse. Academic Press, San Diego 1994, ISBN 0-12-173375-0.
  • Nicolas Rasmussen: On speed. The Many Lives of Amphetamines. New York University Press, New York 2008, ISBN 0-8147-7601-9.
  • Alexander Shulgin, Ann Shulgin: Pihkal. A chemical love story. Transform Press, Berkeley 1992, ISBN 0-9630096-0-5.
  • Stephen Smith: Addiction. The story of Stephen Smith. Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 978-3-548-31215-6.

Web links

Template: Commonscat / WikiData / Difference

Individual evidence

  1. 1,01,11,21,31,41,5Thieme Chemistry (Ed.): Römpp Online. Version 3.1. Thieme, Stuttgart 2007.
  2. ↑ entry to amphetamine in the GESTIS substance database of the IFA, accessed on December 23, 2007 (JavaScript required)
  3. 3,03,1amphetamine at ChemIDplus
  4. 4,04,1data sheet DL-Amphetamine sulfate salt at Sigma-Aldrich, accessed March 20, 2011.
  5. ↑ Since December 1, 2012, only GHS hazardous substance labeling has been permitted for substances. The R-phrases of this substance may still be used to classify preparations until June 1, 2015, after which the EU hazardous substance labeling is of purely historical interest.
  6. ↑ Safety data sheet for Amphetamine sulfate - FAGRON GmbH & Co.KG September 18, 2008
  7. ↑ Lazăr Edeleanu (1887): About some derivatives of phenyl methacrylic acid and phenyl isobutyric acid. In: Reports of the German Chemical Society. Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 616-622. doi: 10.1002 / cber.188702001142Abstract
  8. ↑ EMCDDA 2001 Indicators for the Drug Market - Seizures, Price, Purity
  9. ↑ UN statistics 2003 (English)
  10. 10,010,1PBS Statistics on stimulant use.
  11. 11,011,1Europol: The "Dirty" and Dangerous Side Effects of Synthetic Drugs Production.
  12. ↑ R. B. Rothman, M. H. Baumann: Therapeutic and adverse actions of serotonin transporter substrates. In: Pharmacology & therapeutics. Volume 95, Number 1, July 2002, pp. 73-88, ISSN 0163-7258. PMID 12163129. (Review).
  13. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. In: Prog. Neurobiol.. 75, No. 6, April 2005, pp. 406-33. doi: 10.1016 / j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. PMID 15955613. Full text: on Google Docs
  14. Amphetamine. In: DrugBank
  15. ↑ IPCS INCHEM: Toxicity of amphetamine (English).