Is the blending of inheritance similar to incomplete dominance
2. Important terms in classical genetics
Classical Genetics: Definitions of Terms
The Mendelian rules (Laws of inheritance) describe Laws of Inheritance of features.
Genes = Hereditary factors. They contain information in the form of specific base sequences that are translated into proteins and thus functional or active (pronounced / expressed) (see protein synthesis as a function of DNA).
Alleles = Variants of a gene (e.g. flower color: allele "red" and allele "white"). There can be more than two variants of information. One then speaks of multiple allelia (e.g. for blood groups).
Phenotype = Appearance (e.g. visible flower color) = visible characteristics. When a "trait" (phen) is spoken of, the phenotypic expression (expression) of a gene is meant.
genotype = Inheritance (genetic disposition, e.g. for flower color) = totality of genetic characteristics.
diploid = double set of chromosomes; for each trait (phen) there are two genes. In higher animals and plants, all cells with the exception of the sex cells are diploid (or polyploid = even more sets of chromosomes)
Danger! Do not confuse this with the replicated set of chromosomes! See replication before mitosis!
haploid = simple set of chromosomes; for each trait there is (only) one genetic disposition (or one gene). Arises from reduction division (meiosis). Occurs in the sex cells: egg cell, sperm. The fusion during fertilization then creates a diploid set of chromosomes again.
pure (homozygous) = The diploid chromosome set stands for a purely inherited trait the same genetic make-up in both sets of chromosomes (e.g. 2 x flower color "red"). An individual happens to inherit the same gene variant (the same allele) from both parents.
mix-and-match (heterozygous) = In the diploid set of chromosomes there is a mixed-blood trait two different genes (e.g. flower color "red" AND "white")
dominant-recessive inheritance = For mixed-inherited characteristics one genetic trait prevails over the other (e.g. flower color "red" dominant compared to the recessive "white": genotype = red and white / phenotype = red)
intermediate inheritance = In the case of mixed-inheritance traits, both hereditary factors (alleles) influence and lead to an "intermediate" = intermediate appearance of the trait due to incomplete dominance (e.g. flower color "red and white intermediate": genotype = red and white / phenotype = pink). Both alleles influence the expression (expression).
codominant inheritance = With codominant inheritance patterns, both hereditary factors influence the relevant trait to the same extent. Both hereditary factors are fully expressed (e.g. blood group AB - the gene for surface protein A and the gene for surface protein B are both fully expressed and thus both proteins are on the red blood cells: AB).
monohybrid inheritance = The Inheritance of a trait is examined (e.g. flower color)
dihybrid inheritance = The Inheritance of two characteristics is examined (e.g. pea color and shape)
Parental generation (P) = parents
First generation of branches (F1) = daughter generation after crossing the P generation
Second generation of branches (F2) = grandchildren after crossing the F1 generation
Mixed race (Bastards, hybrid) = F1 generation with mixed (intermediate) genotype
Gamet = Sex cell (sperm cell, egg cell)
Backcross = Crossing the mixed-blooded F1 generation with the pure-blooded P generation. Initial situation: There is a dominant phenotype = e.g. only the flower color that is considered "dominant" is visible. The genotype of this individual can be both RR (= homozygous) and Rw (= heterozygous). In order to find out whether it is a homozygous or heterozygous genotype for the characteristic "flower color", the backcrossing is carried out with an organism that is clearly recessive-homozygous for the characteristic "flower color", ie genotype: ww.
Ruso, Bernhart. 2011. BIOLOGY. Script. Vienna: Dr. Roland GmbH, 2011. 3rd edition
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