Should Quora have a night mode function

Social media - Social media

Internet services for exchanging personal information and ideas

Social media are interactive technologies that enable the creation or sharing / sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other expressions through virtual communities and networks. While challenges in defining Social media occur due to the multitude of standalone and integrated social media services currently available, there are some similarities:

  1. Social media are interactive internet-based Web 2.0 applications.
  2. User-generated content such as text contributions or comments, digital photos or videos as well as data generated by all online interactions are the lifeblood of social media.
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and managed by the social media organization.
  4. Social media supports the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with that of other people or groups.

Users typically access social media services through web-based apps on desktops and laptops, or download services that provide social media capabilities to their mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms through which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, collaboratively create, discuss, participate, and modify user-generated content or self-curated content posted online. In addition, social media are used to document memories. Learning and exploring things; apply; and make friends, along with the growth of ideas from creating blogs, podcasts, videos, and game sites. This changing relationship between people and technology is at the heart of the emerging field of technoself studies.

The most popular social media websites with over 100 million registered users include Facebook (and its associated Facebook Messenger), TikTok, WeChat, Instagram, QZone, Weibo, Twitter, Tumblr, Baidu Tieba, and LinkedIn. Depending on the interpretation, other popular platforms sometimes referred to as social media services include YouTube, QQ, Quora, Telegram, WhatsApp, LINE, Snapchat, Pinterest, Viber, Reddit, Discord, VK, Microsoft Teams, and more. Wikis are examples of collaborative content creation.

Social media distinguishes it from traditional media (e.g., print magazines and newspapers and television and radio) in a variety of ways, including quality, reach, frequency, ease of use, immediacy, and durability. In addition, social media work in one dialogical Transmission system, ie many sources to many receivers, while conventional media under one monological Working transmission model (ie one source to many recipients). For example, a newspaper is delivered to many subscribers and a radio station broadcasts the same programs to an entire city.

With the dramatic expansion of the Internet, digital media or digital rhetoric can be used to represent or identify a culture. To examine how the rhetoric that exists in the digital environment has become a crucial new process for many scientists.

Observers have noted a variety of positive and negative effects of using social media. Social media can help improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities and can be a powerful communication (or marketing) tool for companies, entrepreneurs, nonprofits, interest groups, political parties, and governments. Observers have also seen that social movements using social media as a tool to communicate and organize in times of political turmoil have increased.

Social Media History

Front of the ARPANET Interface Message Processor from 1969.
IMP protocol for the first message sent over the Internet with ARPANET.

Social media could have roots in the introduction of the telegraph in the 1840s that linked the United States.

Early arithmetic

The PLATO system was introduced in 1960 after it was developed at the University of Illinois and then marketed commercially by Control Data Corporation. It offered early forms of social media functionality with innovations from 1973 such as Notes, PLATO's application for the news forum; TERM-Talk, its instant messaging function; Talkomatic, perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowdsourced online newspaper and blog; and access lists, which allow the owner of a note file or other application to restrict access to a specific group of users, e.g. B. only to friends, classmates or co-workers.

First online in 1967, ARPANET had developed a rich cultural exchange of nongovernmental / business ideas and communication by the late 1970s, as evidenced by the network etiquette (or "netiquette") described in a 1982 computer manual with MIT ' s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET developed into the Internet after the publication of the first Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) specification RFC 675 ( Specification of the Internet Transmission Control Program ), written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sonnenschein in 1974 the basis of this was Usenet, conceived in 1979 by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University and founded in 1980.

A forerunner to the electronic bulletin board system (BBS) known as Community Memory had already appeared in 1973. True electronic BBS arrived in Chicago with the Computer Bulletin Board System, which first went online on February 16, 1978. In major cities, more than one BBS ran on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, Sinclair, and the like PCs. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, and subsequent models were used by both Mac computers and personal computers in the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunications hardware, made it possible for many users to be online at the same time. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s, BBS numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. News forums (a specific structure of social media) emerged with the BBS phenomenon in the 1980s and early 1990s. When the World Wide Web (WWW or "the Web") was added to the Internet in the mid-1990s, news forums migrated to the Internet and become Internet forums, largely because of the cheaper access per person as well as the ability to treat far more people at the same time than telecommunications modem banks .

Digital imaging and semiconductor image sensor technology is facilitating the development and rise of social media. Advances in the manufacture of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) semiconductor devices, which reached smaller micrometer and then submicron values ​​in the 1980s to 1990s, led to the development of the NMOS active pixel sensor (n-type MOS) with active pixel sensor (APS) at Olympus 1985 and then the complementary MOS (CMOS) active pixel sensor (CMOS sensor) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in CMOS sensors in 1993 enabled the mass adoption of digital cameras and camera phones, which fueled the rise of social media.

Data compression

An important characteristic of social media is the compression of digital media data due to the impractically high storage and bandwidth requirements of uncompressed media. The main compression algorithm is the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), a lossy compression technique first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972. The DCT-based compression standards include the H.26x and MPEG video coding standards introduced in 1988, as well as the JPEG image compression standard introduced in 1992 that was largely responsible for the dissemination of digital images and digital photos, which are at the center of social media, and MPEG Standards did the same for digital video content on social media. As of 2014, the JPEG image format will be used more than a billion times a day on social networks.

Development of social media platforms

SixDegrees was launched in 1997 and is often viewed as the premier social media site.

The development of social media started with simple platforms. GeoCities was one of the first social networking services, launched in November 1994, followed by in December 1995 and in May 1997 as opposed to instant messaging clients (e.g. ICQ and AOL's AIM) or chat clients (e.g. IRC, iChat or Chat Television), SixDegrees was the first online business created for real people using their real names. According to CBS News SixDegrees is "widely regarded as the very first social networking site" as it contains "profiles, friend lists, and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users.

After that, Open Diary was launched in October 1998; LiveJournal in April 1999; Ryze in October 2001; Friendster in March 2003; the corporate and professional website LinkedIn in May 2003; hi5 in June 2003; MySpace in August 2003; Orkut in January 2004; Facebook and Flickr, both February 2004; YouTube in February 2005; Yahoo! 360 ° in March 2005; Bebo in July 2005; the text-based service Twitter, where posts (so-called Tweets ) were limited to 140 characters in July 2006; Tumblr in February 2007; Instagram in July 2010; and Google+ in July 2011.

Research from 2015 shows that the world spent 22% of its online time on social networks, indicating the popularity of social media platforms. It is speculated that the rise in popularity of social media is due to the widespread daily use of smartphones.

Definition and characteristics

The idea that social media is defined simply by its ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad as it would suggest that radically different technologies like telegraph and telephone are also social media. The terminology is unclear. Some early researchers in the mid-2000s referred to social media as social networks or social network services. A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the field and identified four common characteristics that are unique to social media services then current:

  1. Social media are internet-based Web 2.0 applications.
  2. User Generated Content (UGC) is the lifeblood of the social media organism.
  3. Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and managed by the social media organization.
  4. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by linking a user's profile with that of other people or groups.

In 2019, Merriam-Webster defined it Social media as "forms of electronic communication (such as social networking sites and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (such as videos)."

While the variety of standalone and integrated social media services evolving makes it difficult to define, marketing and social media experts broadly agree that social media encompasses the following 13 types of social media:

  • Blogs,
  • Joint projects,
  • social networks for companies,
  • Corporate networks,
  • Forums,
  • Microblogs,
  • Photo sharing,
  • Product / service evaluation,
  • Social bookmarking,
  • Social gaming,
  • social networks ,
  • Video sharing and
  • virtual worlds.
Classification of social media and overview of how important different types of social media (e.g. blogs) are for every operational function of a company (e.g. marketing)

Mobile social media

The heavy use of smartphones among young people is related to the significant percentage of social media users who come from this population group.

Mobile social media refer to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Mobile social media is a useful application of mobile marketing as the creation, sharing, and distribution of user-generated content can help businesses research, communicate, and develop relationships. Mobile social media differs from others in that it takes into account the current location of the user (location sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving messages (time sensitivity).

According to Andreas Kaplan, mobile social media applications can be divided into four types:

  1. Room timer (location and time-sensitive): exchange of messages that are mainly relevant for a specific location at a specific time (e.g. Facebook Places, WhatsApp, Foursquare)
  2. Space locators (only location-dependent): Exchange of messages relevant to a specific location, which are marked in a specific location and later read by others (e.g. Yelp, Qype, Tumblr, Fishbrain).
  3. Quick timer (only time-sensitive): Transmission of traditional mobile social media apps to increase the immediacy (e.g. publication on Twitter or status updates on Facebook)
  4. Slow motion (neither location nor time critical): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g. watching a YouTube video or reading / editing a Wikipedia article)

Elements and function

Viral content

Some social media websites have the potential to have content posted there viral spread via social networks. The term is an analogy to the concept of viral infections, which can spread rapidly from individual to individual. In a social media context, content or websites that are "viral" (or "going viral") are those with a higher probability of users republishing content that has been published (by another user) on their social network, which leads to a further release. In some cases, posts with popular content or breaking news were quickly shared and re-shared by a large number of users.

Businesses have a particular interest in viral marketing tactics because a viral campaign can get widespread advertising coverage (especially if the viral reposting itself is getting the news) at a fraction of the cost of a traditional marketing campaign that typically uses printed materials such as newspapers ). Magazines, mailings and billboards, as well as television and radio advertising. Nonprofits and activists may have a similar interest in posting content on social media websites to go viral.

Many social media websites have special features that allow users to re-share content, such as: B. the retweet button from Twitter, the pin function from Pinterest, the share option from Facebook or the circling function from Tumblr. Re-sharing (or, in this case, retweeting) is a particularly popular component and feature of Twitter that allows its users to keep up with important events, stay connected with their peers, and post on social media in a variety of ways afford to. As certain posts become popular, they are retweeted over and over and go viral. Hashtags can be used in tweets and can also be used to count how many people have used that hashtag.


Bots are automated programs that run on the Internet and are in increasing demand due to their ability to automate many communication tasks, leading to the creation of a new industry of bot providers.

Chatbots and social bots are programmed to mimic natural human interactions such as liking, commenting, following, and unfollowing on social media platforms. As businesses strive for bigger market shares and audiences, internet bots have also been developed to make marketing on social media easier. However, with the existence of social bots and chatbots, the marketing industry has also gone through an analytical crisis as these bots make it difficult to differentiate between human interactions and automated bot interactions. For example, marketing data was negatively influenced by some bots, which led to "digital cannibalism" in social media marketing. In addition, some bots violate the terms of use on many social media platforms such as Instagram, which can result in profiles being removed and banned.

"Cyborgs" - neither human-sponsored nor human-sponsored bots - are used for a variety of legitimate and illegitimate purposes, from spreading fake news to creating marketing buzz. A common legitimate use includes using automated programs to post to social media at a specific point in time. In these cases, the human often writes the content of the post and the bot plans the time of the post. In other cases, the cyborgs are more nefarious, such as contributing to the spread of fake news and misinformation. Often times, these accounts strategically link human and bot activities so that if an automated account is publicly identified, the human half of the cyborg can take control and protest that the account has been used manually all along. In many cases, these accounts, used in more improper ways, attempt to impersonate real people. In particular, the number of their friends or followers is similar to that of a real person. Cyborgs are also related to sock puppet accounts, where a human pretends to be someone else, but can also include a human who operates multiple cyborg accounts.

New social media technology

The growth of published US patent applications for social networks and granted patents from 2003 to 2010. The graph shows that the number of published applications (green bars) steadily increased from 2003 to 2007 and then increased from 2008 to 2010.

The number of US patent applications addressing new social media-related technologies has grown rapidly, and the number of published technologies has grown rapidly over the past five years. As of 2020, there are over 5,000 published patent applications in the United States. Up to 7,000 applications may be currently submitted, including those that have not yet been published. However, only a little over 100 of these applications were granted as patents, mainly due to the multi-year backlog in the examination of business method patents, that is, patents that describe and claim new business methods.

Platform convergence

As an example of technological convergence, various social media platforms of different types have adapted functionality beyond its original scope and increasingly overlapped over time, although they are usually not as fully implemented as on dedicated platforms.

Examples are the social hub website Facebook, on which an integrated video platform was launched in May 2007, and Instagram, which was originally used to share low-resolution photos. In 2013, the ability to share quarter-minute videos with 640 × 640 pixels (later extended to one minute with increased resolution) was introduced, which behaves like a minimal video platform without a video search bar. Instagram implemented later Stories (short videos that self-destruct after 24 hours), one from Snapchat and IGTV popular concept , for searchable videos up to ten minutes or an hour, depending on your account status. Stories were later adapted by the special video platform YouTube in 2018, although access to the mobile apps is limited, excluding mobile and desktop websites.

Twitter, whose original scope was text-based microblogging, later adapted the functions for sharing photos (using third-party services such as TwitPic were no longer recommended ), later video sharing with a time limit of 140 seconds and a Display counter , but without manual quality selection or subtitles as with dedicated video platforms and originally only available for users of mobile apps, but later implemented in their website frontends. Then one Media studio Function for business users who want the Creator Studio by YouTube is similar.

Discussion board Reddit added a built-in image hoster in June 2016 after Reddit users traditionally relied on the external standalone image-sharing platform Imgur and an internal video hoster a year later. In July 2020, the option was implemented to display multiple images in a single post ( Picture galleries ), a function known from Imgur. Imgur itself implemented the sharing of videos up to 30 seconds in length in May 2018, which were later extended to one minute.

As of 2018, the dedicated video platform YouTube will have a Community Function introduced that can be accessed through a "Channel" tab (which is the previous tab " Discussion channel " usurped), on which only text contributions and surveys can be shared. To be activated, channels must exceed a subscriber count threshold that has been decreased over time.

Usage and membership statistics

Social media websites are popular on mobile devices such as smartphones.

According to Statista, around 3.6 billion people worldwide will use social media in 2020. from 3.4 billion in 2019. That number is expected to increase to 4.41 billion in 2025.

Most popular social network services

Below is a list of the most popular social networking services based on the number of active users as of January per Statista.


According to a 2018 survey by Pew Research, Facebook and YouTube dominated the social media landscape, with a remarkable majority of adults in the United States using each of these websites. At the same time, younger Americans (especially those aged 18 to 24) were distinguished by using a variety of platforms and using them frequently. 78% of 18- to 24-year-old adults used Snapchat, with a sizeable majority of those users (71%) visiting the platform multiple times a day. Similarly, 71% of Americans in this age group used Instagram and nearly half (45%) were Twitter users. Still, Facebook remained the primary platform for most American adults: around two-thirds of adults in the United States (68%) said they were Facebook users, and around three-quarters of those users accessed Facebook on a daily basis. With the exception of those 65 and over, a majority of Americans used Facebook in a variety of populations. However, following the rapid growth of Facebook in the US over the years, the number of newly created Facebook accounts in the US has risen to a plateau, with barely any growth in the 2016-18 period.

A study from 2009 suggests that there may be individual differences that explain who uses social media and who doesn't: extraversion and openness have a positive relationship with social media, while emotional stability has a negative relationship with social media. A separate study from 2015 found that people with higher social comparability appear to use social media more than people with low social comparability.

Data from Common Sense Media suggests that children under the age of 13 use social networking services in the United States, although many social media sites have guidelines that require at least 13 years of age or older to become a member. In 2017, Common Sense Media conducted a nationwide representative survey of parents of children from birth to the age of 8 and found that 4% of children at that age found social media sites like Instagram, Snapchat or (now not more existing) used. “Often” or “sometimes”. Another nationally representative survey by Common Sense in 2019 polled young Americans ages 8 to 16 and found that around 31% of children ages 8 to 12 ever use social media such as Snapchat, Instagram, or Facebook. In the same survey, 28% of American teenagers aged 16-18 said they used social media before they were 13. However, the average age to start using social media was 14 years.

In June 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationally representative survey by the Cartoon Network and Cyberbullying Research Center found that American tweens (9-12 years old) were YouTube (67%) the most popular overall use over the past year. (As they age, tweens were generally more likely to use important social media apps and games.) Similarly, a 2020 statewide representative Common Sense Media survey of Americans ages 13-18 found that YouTube did, too the most used was popular social media service (used by 86% of 13-18 year old Americans last year).

platform A total of Boys girl 9 year old 12 year old
Youtube 67% 68% 66% 53,6% 74,6%
Minecraft 48% 61% 35% 43,6% 49,9%
Roblox 47% 44% 49% 41,2% 41,7%
Google Classroom 45% 48% 41% 39,6% 49,3%
Fourteen days 31% 43% 20% 22,2% 38,9%
Tick ​​tock 30% 23% 30% 16,8% 37%
YouTube kids 26% 24% 28% 32,7% 22,1%
Snapchat 16% 11% 21% 5,6% 22,3%
Facebook Messenger Kids fifteen% 12% 18% 19,1% 10,4%
Instagram fifteen% 12% 19% 3% 28,8%
discord 8% 11% 5% 0,7% 14,4%
Facebook 8% 6% 9% 2,2% fifteen%
Pull out 5% 7% 2% 1,0% 9,9%
None of the above 5% 6% 5% 9,6% 3,3%

Use at the organizational level


Governments can use social media to (for example):

  • communicate their opinions to the public
  • interact with citizens
  • Promote citizen participation
  • more open government
  • Analysis / monitoring of public opinion and activities
  • Educating the public about risks and public health.

Law enforcement and investigation

Social media has been used extensively in civil and criminal investigations. It was also used to help find missing people. Police authorities often use official social media accounts to engage with the public, promote police activities and improve the image of law enforcement agencies. Conversely, video footage of police brutality documented by citizens and other misconduct was sometimes posted on social media.

In the US, the US Immigration and Customs Service identifies and tracks people through social media and has arrested some people through social media-based spike operations. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (also known as CPB) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security use social media data as influencers during the visa process and continue to monitor people after they enter the country. It has also been documented that CPB officers at the border conduct searches of electronic and social media behavior, searching both citizens and non-citizens without first obtaining an arrest warrant.

Government reputation management

As social media gained momentum among younger generations, governments used it to improve their image, especially among the youth. In January 2021, Egyptian authorities were found to be using Instagram influencers as part of their media ambassador program. The program was intended to improve Egypt's image and counteract the bad press Egypt received due to the country's human rights situation. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates participated in similar programs. Similarly, Dubai has relied heavily on social media and influencers to promote tourism. However, Dubai's restrictive laws have always kept these influencers in check so as not to offend the authorities or criticize the city, politics or religion. The content of these overseas influencers is scrutinized to ensure that nothing portrays Dubai in a negative light.


The high prevalence of social media in the private sphere prompts companies to deal with the possible uses of social media

  • a customer organizational level; and
  • an organizational level.

Market participants can use social media tools for market research, communication, sales promotions / discounts, informal employee learning / organizational development, relationship development / loyalty programs, and e-commerce. Often times, social media can be a good source of information and / or an explanation of industry trends for a company to accept change. The trends in social media technology and usage are changing rapidly, making it vital for businesses to have a set of guidelines that can apply to many social media platforms.

Businesses are increasingly using social media monitoring tools to monitor, track and analyze online conversations on the web about their brand or products or related topics of interest. This can come in handy in managing public relations and tracking ad campaigns so that analysts can measure the return on investment on their social media ad spend, scrutiny of competitors, and public engagement. The tools range from free basic applications to subscription-based, more detailed tools.

The financial industry uses the power of social media as a tool to analyze sentiment in the financial markets. These range from the marketing of financial products to insights into market sentiment, future market forecasts and the identification of insider deals.

Social media works through a process called "building social authority". One of the basic concepts in social media is that one cannot completely control one's message through social media, but can simply start participating in the "conversation" in the expectation that one can have a significant impact on that conversation.

Social media marketing

Social media websites can also use "traditional" marketing approaches as seen in these LinkedIn branded chocolates.

Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to advertise a product or service and to connect with its customers. Social media marketing has increased due to increasing active user rates on social media websites. For example, Facebook currently has 2.2 billion users, Twitter has 330 million active users, and Instagram has 800 million users. Similar to traditional advertising, all social media marketing can be broken down into three types: (1) paid media, (2) earned media, and (3) proprietary media. Paid social media is when a company purchases advertising directly on a social media platform. Earned social media is when companies do something that impresses their consumers or other stakeholders and they spontaneously post their own content about it on social media. Own social media is when the company owns the social media channel itself and creates content for its followers.

One of the main uses is to interact with the audience to create awareness of the company or organization, with the main idea of ​​creating a two-way communication system in which the audience and / or customers can interact. For example, customers can provide feedback on the company's products. However, as social media allows consumers to share opinions and share experiences in a peer-to-peer manner, this has shifted some of the power from the organization to the consumer as these messages can be transparent and honest.

Social media can also be used to advertise directly. For example, if you run an ad on Facebook's news feed, you can expose the brand to a large number of people. Social media platforms also make it possible to address specific target groups with advertising. Social media users can then like, share, and comment on the ad. This turns the passive advertising consumers into active advertising producers as they can pass the advertising message on to their friends. Companies that use social media marketing need to keep up with the various social media platforms and keep up to date with the latest trends. As different platforms and trends attract different audiences, companies need to be strategic about using social media to attract the right audience. Additionally, the tone of the content can affect the effectiveness of social media marketing. Companies like Wendy's fast food franchise have used humor to promote their products by making fun of competitors like McDonald's and Burger King. Other companies like Juul have used hashtags to promote themselves and their products.

Social media personalities, often referred to as "influencers", have been used by marketers to promote products online. Research shows that digital endorsements appear to be successful in attracting social media users, especially younger consumers who grew up in the digital age. In 2013 the British started