Where is the calcaneus bone
from Latin: calcar - spur
Synonym: heel bone, os calcis
The Calcaneus is the largest bone of the foot skeleton. It is involved in the formation of the lower ankle joint (USG) and serves as a lever arm for the flexors of the lower leg, which attach to it via the Achilles tendon.
The calcaneus has a cube-shaped basic shape and has 6 surfaces.
2.1.1 Superior facies
The superior face of the calcaneus is essentially occupied by 3 articular surfaces that articulate with the talus:
- Facies articularis talaris posterior
- Facies articularis talaris media
- Facies articularis talaris anterior
Between the facies articularis talaris posterior and media lies the sulcus calcanei. Together with the talar sulcus of the talus, it forms the so-called sinus tarsi, a tunnel that accommodates the interosseous talocalcaneum ligament. The facies articularis talaris posterior is involved in the formation of the posterior USG (articulatio subtalaris), the facies anterior and facies media in the formation of the anterior USG (articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis). The small, rough bone surface in front of the joint surfaces serves as the origin of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle.
2.1.2 Inferior facies (plantar surface)
The inferior face is uneven and wider at the back than at the front. It is bounded posteriorly by a prominent elevation, the heel hump (tuber calcanei). The Achilles tendon attaches to it. The tuber forms a small bone extension (processus) on both sides.
The for inside The processus medialis (tuberis calcanei) located towards it serves as the origin for the musculus abductor hallucis and the musculus flexor digitorum brevis. From its base to the lateral process (tuberis calcanei), which is attached to the Outside of the foot, the original surface of the abductor digiti quinti muscle runs across the bone. There is a central depression between the two processes. The two heads of the quadratus plantae muscle are placed medially and laterally further anteriorly in front of the processus.
2.1.3 Facies medialis
The medial side of the calcaneus is concave. At its cranial end there is a prominent, horizontal protrusion of bone, the sustentaculum tali. The underside is channel-shaped to the Sulcus tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi shaped and takes up the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus muscle.
2.1.4 Lateral facies
The lateral side of the calcaneus has a slightly protruding bone cusp (trochlea fibularis). Below the trochlea fibularis lies the Sulcus tendinis musculi peronei longithat receives the tendon of the peroneus longus muscle.
2.1.5 Anterior facies
The anterior face of the calcaneus, with the facies articularis cuboidea, forms a connection surface to the os cuboideum.
The bone core of the calcaneus develops between the 4th and 7th fetal month.
The calcaneus serves as a lever arm for the most important flexors of the lower leg muscles.
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