Who stopped the Mongols in Europe?

Mongolia: history

The Mongols enter history

Middle of the 12th century: The Mongols (meng) cause the first unrest in today's Mongolian plateau.

1206: The Temujin (* 1155 or 1167, died 1227), who comes from a Mongolian princely family, is proclaimed supreme ruler of the Mongols at a popular assembly. He is given the title of Genghis Khan ("ocean-like ruler" or "world ruler"). He succeeded for the first time in uniting the fragmented Mongol tribes and then quickly conquering large parts of North and Central Asia. But he also organized the state and initiated the installation of the Jassa code.

1211 - 1234: War against northern China (Jurchen of the Jin dynasty).

1220: Foundation of the Mongolian capital Karakorum in the north of what is now Mongolia. Improvement of the organization of the Mongolian Empire through Yelü Chutsai, Machmud Jalatwach and other advisors.

1219 - 1221: Conquest of the Khorezmian Empire.

1226: Conquest of the Tangut Empire in Kansu.

1236 - 1242: The Mongols under Batu Khan conquer most of Russia (see, among others, Battle of the Kalka).

1240 - 1502: The Golden Horde, a western group of the Mongols, ruled large areas of Eastern Europe.

1241: The Mongols advance to Silesia (Battle of Wahlstatt) and Hungary (Muhi).

1242: The Mongols reach the Adriatic.

1258: The Mongols conquer Baghdad and destroy the Abbasid caliphate. In its place comes the Mongolian Ilkhan Empire. As a result, the influence of Persian-Islamic culture on the Mongols increased.

Kublai Khan becomes Emperor of China and establishes the Yuan Dynasty

1260: The Great Khan of the Mongols, Kublai Khan (* 1215, died 1294), becomes Emperor of Northern China. Beijing becomes the new capital of the Mongols. At the same time, the already loose union of the Mongols began to break up into partial empires.

1274 and 1281: Two attempts by the Mongols to attack Japan fail. In 1279 the conquest of southern China is completed, where the Sung dynasty is eliminated.

1279 - 1294: Kublai Khan is emperor of all (!) China (Shih Tsu). He founded the Mongolian-Chinese Yuan Dynasty (until 1368). Kublai Khan accepted Buddhism in contact with the Tibetans (Sakya Monastery) and brought Tibetan lamas into the country.

1368: With the Chinese uprisings and the fall of the Yuan Dynasty (since 1271), Mongolian rule in China ends. The Mongols are driven out of China and their former capital, Karakoram, is destroyed.

Timur Lenk (Tamerlan) and his successors

In 1380 the Mongolian-born Timur Lenk (Tamerlan) began his conquests. Timur comes from a Mongolian tribe, the Barlas, who immigrated to Transoxania in the 13th century. Over time, these adopt a Turkic language and culturally approach the Turkish nomads of Central Asia.

1391 and 1395: Timur defeats the Mongolian rulers of the Golden Horde, whose empire then breaks up into individual khanates.

In 1394, Timur's zone of influence extends over parts of what is now Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Georgia, Syria and Turkey. In the east his empire borders on the (eastern) Chagatai Khanate of the Mongols. For more information on the Timur Lenk era see> Wikipedia.

from 1400: In Mongolia, the western Mongols (Oirats) and the eastern Mongols (especially Chalcha, Chahar, Ordos, Tümed and Uriankhai) fight for power or fight against the China of the Ming Dynasty. Frequent raids on the Chinese border areas eventually lead to the construction of the Great Wall of China.

1449: Victory of the Western Mongols under Esen Taiji against the Ming. Esen then claimed the khanate, but is murdered.

1468: the Eastern Mongols under Dayan Khan (d. 1543) and his grandson Altan Khan (d. 1582) take power in Mongolia. They establish a renewed heyday in Mongolia, the influence of which extends back to Central Asia and the Urals.

Renaissance of Tibetan Buddhism

1578: Through the mediation of the III. Dalai Lama, Sönam Gyatso, Buddhism is gaining in importance again, which subsequently finally asserts itself in the Mongol Empire (Tibetan Lamaism). Since then, there has been a close cultural bond with Tibet, in which the Dalai Lama is the religious authority and the Khan is the political power. The political power of the Dalai Lama in Tibet is supported for a long time by the protective power Molgolei.

The Manchu dynasty subjugates the Mongols

1634: Subjugation of the Chahar in Inner Mongolia by the Manchu, death of Ligdan Khan.

1644: The Manchus conquer Beijing. Beginning of the Manchu-Chinese Qing dynasty (1644-1911).

1691: To avert threatened submission by the Oirats, the Chalcha of Outer Mongolia submit to the Chinese Qing Dynasty. Afterwards, Chalcha and Manchu jointly beat the Oirats at Zuunmod (1696).

1756: After internal conflicts, the kingdom of the Oirats is conquered and destroyed by the Qing / Manchu under Emperor Qianlong.

Solution from china

19th century: With European colonialism, the Chinese Empire is weakened. Han Chinese revolts against the Manchu rulers enforce the republic. In 1912 the last emperor abdicated. Until Mao's victory in 1949, China was torn by warlord power struggles, civil wars and other conflicts.

1911: After the fall of the Chinese Manchu dynasty, Outer Mongolia separated from China. In Inner Mongolia, many Mongol leaders had landed property and economic interests in China, so that there was a bloody repression.

The Khalka Mongols of Outer Mongolia appoint a lama with the title Bogd Gegeen Khan as head of state. Urga - later renamed Ulan Bator - becomes the capital. The Chinese living in Outer Mongolia have been driven out. Mining and rural agriculture perished because the Mongols were unable and unwilling to work in these areas.

In 1912 there was an alliance with Russia as a protective power against China, in 1913 with Tibet.

1918-1919: China takes advantage of Russia's weakness after the First World War and in the civil war and occupies Mongolia. The officer Roman von Ungern-Sternberg, who came from the Baltic States and previously served under the Tsar, drove out the Han Chinese with his Cossacks in 1920/1921. First celebrated as a liberator, after looting and massacres in the capital Urga, he is quickly perceived as a fanatical psychopath, a bloody baron. For his part, he was defeated by the communist revolutionaries under Damdin Süchbaatars and executed in 1921.

In 1921 Mongolia (actually only Outer Mongolia) declared its independence.

Communist phase

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While the shepherds were only employed during communist times, they then went into business for themselves and set up their flocks. The numbers of sheep, goats and horses have multiplied in Mongolia. The pasture grounds are no longer sufficient for the large numbers of cattle and overgrazing - especially with goats, which uproot the grasses - promotes the expansion of steppes and deserts. Global warming, which shows above-average values ​​in Mongolia, does its part. Many wells are drying up.

The nutritional status of the herds has deteriorated due to the poor pastures. At the same time, winter cold spells are increasing in quantity and intensity. Again and again it comes to mass deaths among the cattle. When families lose their herds in this way, they often have no choice but to move to the slums of Ulan Bator.