How is the plural formed in Javanese
Javanese language and literature
Javanese language and literature. The J.S., which is spoken by about nine tenths of the inhabitants of Java or about 10 million people (the rest of the population speaks Sundaic), belongs to the Malay or Oceanic language tribe. In its grammatical structure it is very closely related to Malay and the languages of neighboring countries, but shows many deviations in lexicographical relation, especially since it uses many words, mostly through the Kawi (sd), the ancient sacred and learned language Javas, from Sanskrit, less since conversion to Islam from Arabic. Older Javanese is quite different from today's vernacular. In addition, one must distinguish between two modes of language in Javanese, the Boso kromo (i.e. actually the regulated, but then the respectful language) which is used by the lower when they speak to a higher-ranking, older, more respected person; u. Boso ngokoin which the higher addresses the lower. The Boso kromo or the so-called high Javanese (Hoog Javaansch the Dutch) consists of words that occur only in high Javanese, but not in lower; then in words which differ from the corresponding lower Javanese only by changing the ending; also from words of the lower language, which are also used in the higher language without any further change; finally from words which actually belong to High Javanese, but are also used in the lower language. If you want to get ahead in Java, you have to know both languages. A third mode of language, which holds the middle between the two mentioned and is spoken by people of the same rank, is that Boso madjo or middle language, consisting of the lower Javanese, mixed with the most common words and word forms of the higher language. A fourth Javanese language is that Boso kraton, the language of the court used by the princes. The same is the High Javanese, with the exception of a few words which are peculiar to it.
The Javanese script, which is written from the left to the right, arose from the Davanagari of the ancient Indians and is said to be 73 BC. Be introduced by Adji-Saka. It consists of 20 simple consonants, Haksoros, but each of them has a simpler form, Pasangnganwhich is used to form double consonants by indicating that the preceding consonant should be spoken without a vocal. The vocals, with the exception of the short one O or a, are expressed by special signs above, below or next to the consonant. The nouns are invariable according to gender, number and case; the genitive comes before the nominative, either without a name or with the insertion of the syllableing, the dative and ablative are only described in more detail by prepositions or verbs. The plural is expressed by words that mean a lot, all and the like, or by doubling. The adjectives are also unchangeable and come after their noun. There are different pronouns for the first and second person, the use of which depends on the level of the speaker. If they come after a noun, they become possessives. There are also relatives, demonstratives, etc.The numerals are: 1 sidschi, 2 loro, 3 telu, 4 papat, 5 limo, 6 nem, 7 pitu, 8 wolu, 9 songngo, 10 sepuluh, 11 sawelas, 12 rolas, 13 tetulas etc. Ordinalia are given by the addition of ping or kaping formed from it. The conjugation is very simple, as the verb does not change according to person or number. The present tense becomes through the prefix syllable han, also often by adding the verbwonten, low. hono, be, more precisely: han bekto or wonten bekto, low. gowo or hono gowo he brings is brings. In the same way, the past and future are expressed by adding certain particles. In the imperative becomes o, ono, en or enno appended to the word with doubling of the final consonant. The passive is made by inserting the syllablein formed after the initial consonant with manifold changes to it. Nouns and adjectives are derived from Verbis through the prefixes peng (pen, pe) or ka, u. by the suffix on, n formed, e.g. from bekto bring pembekto the bringer, porter, kabekto the brought, bacteria bringing, or from then eat, pendahar the eater, after that the food, kadabaran edible, the beginning of the Our Father reads: Rama kahula kang wonten ing surga, wasta andika dadi elapiennoOur father, who is in heaven, name yours be praised. Grammars by Gericke, Batavia 1831; von Cornets de Groot, ibid. 1833, edited by T. Roorda, Amsterd. 1843, n.A. 1855; by Roorda van Eijslugga, ibid. 1855; Hollander, Breda 1845; Dictionary by Roorda van Eijslugga, Kampen 1834 f., 2 vol .; von Gericke, Amsterd. 1847.
J.L. owns a considerable number of works of very different kinds, some of which are of peculiar value. This is where they belong Babadsvery extensive chronicles, some of which seem to be in prose, while otherwise non-poetical works are usually clothed in verse. Several stories are known all over the island; Pangarang Dhipo-Negoro, who died in Makassar in 1855, wrote one of these in two strong volumes. The smaller Javanese principalities and dominions also have their chronicles. The older story, which is much interwoven with fables, is told by JavasAdji-saka (edited by Gaal and Roorda, Amsterdam 1857). The Javanese codes of law also deserve attention. Hangger. They are like that Nawala-Pradata, Angger Sadasa, Angger-Ageng, Angger Goenoeng, Angger-Aroebiroe (jointly edited by Roorda, Amsterdam 1844); furthermore that Kitab tochpah or the legal book of the Mohammedans on Java (edited by Keijser, Haag 1853); the Panniti Sastro etc. Legendary processing of Muslim fabrics, such as the Serat Radja Pirangon, i.e. History of King Pharaoh (published by Roorda, Haag 1853) u. Serat Iskander, The StoryAlexanders. Biographies of famous  Javanese in the form of novels, such as the Serat Djaya Baya or that Baron Takender; the story of the Hangling darmo (published by Winter, Batavia 1853); the story of Sultan Ibrahim, Prince of Eirak (published by Roorda, Amsterdam 1843). They are of a peculiar nature Lampahan or the texts for the theatrical performances (Vanayangan or just Vayang, similar to our Chinese shadow plays). These Lampahan are based, like the various epic poems in particular, on Indian sagas and myths, which, however, are freely worked out in the Javanese spirit. The ancient Indian heroes and names appear in these epics just as they do in the modern western literary works of Greek and Roman antiquity. Most of the epics, as they are now available, have mostly undergone two, more often three, redactions. All of them were first written in Kavi, were then Javanese and, in the end, often translated from this into Malay as well. Most famous among them are these Brata-Joeda, the Rama u. the Ardjoena-Sasra (published in prosaic abbreviation by Winter, Amsterdam 1845) and the poetry very popular in JavaVivaha (published by Gericke, Batavia 1849; see Rodet, Journal Asian. 1858, vol. 12). A work of religious content is, among other things, the very respected one Manik Maya (edited by Hollander, 1851). A book on Javanese mythology by Kijahi Karto Mosodho was published by Winter (Tijdschrift voor Nederl. In the, 1843, Vol. 1) translated. Several Javanese writings with a Christian content have recently been published by the missionaries; the first translation of the N. T. was provided by Gottlob Brückner (Serampore 1817); More widespread is the newer von Gericke (Haag 1852, 3 vol., 1849, 1 vol., fol.). In Java itself, C. F. Winter in particular has made a great contribution to local literature, including translating 1001 Nights into Javanese (Haag 1853, 2 vols.). A Javanese magazine has been published in Soerakarta since 1855Poespito Mantja Varna. In Europe, the study of J.S. and L. is practiced, especially in Holland (T. Roorda, P. P. Roorda van Eijslugga, Veth, Keijser etc.); Dulaurians in France, Crawfurd in England, Rost (in England) and Friedrich (in Batavia) among the Germans.
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