Why is paraphrasing good for Student 1
Paraphrase: Instructions in 6 steps + 3 tips
Paraphrasing is the expression of someone else's statement in your own words. It is helpful both in everyday life and in academic work. We'll tell you everything you need to know about the paraphrase and have instructions in six steps and three helpful tips for you.
Paraphrasing is a helpful one methodto give scientific work more expression and personality. A paraphrase requires more than a direct quotation Personal contribution and is therefore more appreciated by the examiners.
However, you will not only encounter paraphrases in the scientific field. Also in everyday life we use them often. We explain everything you need to know about paraphrasing, we have six-step instructions for you and three helpful tips on how you can paraphrase better.
Paraphrase: A Definition
Paraphrase: A Definition
Paraphrasing refers to the rendering of a statement in your own words. Thus the Keep the meaning of the statement, but the words are slightly changed. It is used both in everyday life and often in academic work so that you do not have to quote directly.
Paraphrasing is therefore indirect quoting. A source is therefore usually given both in everyday life and in scientific work. In scientific form, theRules of indirect quoting.
So it will the author, the title of the work, the year of publication, and the page on which the citation was foundspecified. In some cases, the publisher in which the work was published is even given. In everyday life, on the other hand, it is sufficient to provide information based on hearsay, for example the name of the person who made the statement. We'll explain it to you using two examples:
An example of paraphrasing in everyday life is:
Oral statement from Lisa:
"I love pasta."
"Lisa said she was very fond of pasta."
An example of scientific paraphrasing is:
Quote from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:
"Nothing is more terrible than a teacher who doesn't know more than what the students should know."
"According to Goethe, there is nothing worse than a teacher whose horizon does not reach further than the knowledge of his students." (see source)
Which is a paraphrase
A paraphrase is that factual repetition of a statement in other words and a description stating the person who originally made the statement. So it forms the noun to the verb “paraphrasing”.
The term “paraphrase” comes from the Greek. The meaning of “pará” is “to, next to, with” and “phrázein” means “to speak, to say”. Paraphrase means an addition to the actual speech and is a rhetorical device.
To better understand what paraphrasing is, synonyms are helpful. For example, instead of “paraphrasing” you could also "Play back", "Rewrite"Use, “quote indirectly”, “rephrase”, “reflect” or “state”.
Subjunctive when paraphrasing
In order to mark that it is a statement or assertion of another person, when paraphrasing the conjunctive used. When giving facts, the subjunctive is sometimes unnecessary.
However, you always play it safe with him when that Statement not scientifically proven is. In addition, doubts about a statement can be expressed if it is paraphrased in the subjunctive. We'll explain it to you again using two examples:
Statement from Tim:
"Because the sun was shining, we were on the beach."
Paraphrasing without subjunctive:
"Tim said he was on the beach because the sun was shining."
Statement from Lena:
“We have the largest house on our street.”
Paraphrasing with the subjunctive:
"Lena said they had the biggest house on their street."
In the Statement from Tim there is no doubt whether he was really on the beach because the sun was shining. Lena's statement but could be exaggerated and was therefore formulated in the subjunctive.
It is the same with theoretical assumptions made by scientists. If the theory has not been fully proven in practice, it is safer to use the subjunctive.
Similarity to paraphrase
Similarity to paraphrase
The term “paraphrasing” is used primarily in communication theory. As with the paraphrase, it is also about the factual repetition of a statement or message in your own words.
However, the Paraphrase inconcrete communication situations used, for example, in a personal conversation, on the phone or by e-mail. The emotional parts are filtered out of a statement and only one remains factual statement left.
This is helpful when a communication situation requires an objective solution. This can also be an advantage in an argument if someone wants to prove that he has understood the core of the argument of his counterpart.
Calls to example angry at a customer at a customer service, it is the job of the supervisor to hear what the problem is and how it can be solved.
Difference to the periphrase
The periphrase is a rhetorical means of paraphrase. In contrast to the paraphrase, it is usually shorter and relates to a term. The term is derived from the Greek of “peri” for “around” and “phrazein” for “to speak, to say”. So it is talked around the actually meant term.
"I was in the country where the lemons bloom."
"I was in Italy."
The function of a periphrase is often that personal evaluation or inflection of a fact. For example, you could take place "Cheese" also derogatory "Squeezed milk" say. There is a positive rating in "City of love" For "Paris".
Sometimes the periphrase is also culturally shaped. For example, Christians often say “Almighty” instead of “God”. The Poeticization of a concept is also a function: Instead of "Flowers" one could also say more poetic "The colorful children of nature".
In any case, it expands the actual term to include information, as is particularly clear here: the answer to the question "Where have you been?" could "Japan" (actual statement) be or “Where there is the best sushi.” (Periphrase with additional information).
Quotations for paraphrasing
Quotations for paraphrasing
If you paraphrase something in a scientific paper, a source must always be given. There are four common citation styles for this reference: Harvard, APA-Standard, the German citation style and the MLA style.
In the Harvard citation after your paraphrase in the running text in brackets, please include the surname of the author, the year of publication of the work and the page number: (see Mustermann 2000: 1).
The Abbreviation "cf." stands for "Compare". The complete source information (name of the author, title of the work, year of publication, possibly publisher and page numbers) belongs in the bibliography.
At APA standard the reference looks like this: (Mustermann, 2000, p. 1). At the MLA style like this: (Mustermann 1). With both citation methods, you give this source in the running text after your paraphrase and write the complete source in the bibliography.
The German citation is a little more detailed. Here you give your source in a so-called “footnote”. The first time your source is mentioned, all complete information should be in the footnote. Then you can use an abbreviation.
Footnotes always begin with a capital letter and end with a period:
Cf. Mustermann, Max: sample title. 3. Edition. Model town 2000, p. 1.
The footnotes may sometimes differ in the details. For example, at some universities it is customary to always include the publisher, others put commas instead of periods between the information. But the most important thing is during your scientific work always uniform to stay.
Scientifically Paraphrasing: A Guide in 6 Steps
You come across scientific paraphrasing at school or collegeTerm papers, specialist papers, seminar papers, bachelor or master theses as well as dissertations. Once you have learned it, you can always make use of it.
Below you will find instructions in six steps, with which you can for example Specialist texts can paraphrase successfully. You should Original text fully understand him reduce to the most important statements and then write it down in your own words.
1. Read and understand the original text
Read and understand the original text
First, you should read the original text or sentence carefully. Look Technical terms and deal with it until you understand him. This is the only way you can reproduce the text in your own words without accidentally falsifying the meaning.
2. Write down the most important statements
This step is only necessary if you have one whole text or one longer passage want to paraphrase. By writing down the most important statements, you can keep track of things and be able to Determine the core of the text.
Ask yourself these questions: What is the author's starting question? What is he getting at? What's his point of view? These questions are especially important when you want to briefly summarize an entire theory by a scientist.
3. Write your own text
In the next step, you should put the original text aside and try to copy his To reproduce content in your words as much as possible. Reduce it to its essential statements and leave out marginal information.
Technical terms from the text can be used, but should be explained for a reader who is less on the subject. It is also important that you always cite the sources. The You can find different citation styles above in the article.
For details on citation, ask your teacher or lecturer or have a look at one Guidelineif there is one. For repetitive quotations you can also use the abbreviation “ibid.” use.
4. Compare texts and make corrections
Compare and correct texts
After you have written your paraphrased text, it is important to compare your text and the original text again. If your sentences sound too much like the original, you should try them again rewrite or use a direct quote.
That too Proofreadingyou shouldn't forget at this point. If you've checked out your source text from the library, you won't always be able to access it.
So if for some reason you no longer understand your own sentence or you have made a mistake, it will be difficult to correct it without the original text. Also, avoid repetitions and improve your vocabulary when making corrections.
5. Check sources
Checking the sources is just as important as correcting errors directly. If you no longer have your original text, it is very difficult to provide source information afterwards. So check them out completeness and make sure that you really are to every paraphrase have made such a statement.
6. Include sources in the bibliography
The last step of paraphrasing is the indication of the source in the bibliography. If you have a scientific thesis, you can do your indicate all sources.
If you have obtained a source from the paraphrase of another source, you only cite the source that was actually available to you. Sort your bibliography alphabetically and here, too, remain uniform in the presentation. One way of specifying a source there is this:
Mustermann, Max / Martin Muster: Exemplary of the pattern. 2nd Edition. Musterhausen 2000.
However, the information and the presentation differ, depending on the type of literature you have (such as encyclopedias, anthologies, internet sources). Here you can find out everything you should know about the bibliography.
Better paraphrase with these 3 tips
3 tips for paraphrasing
Paraphrasing fluently is sometimes not that easy. But the more paraphrases you use, the better you get at it. In addition, we have three tips for you that will make it easier for you to paraphrase.
For example, it sometimes helps that Point of view to change the proposition of the sentence. Also Synonyms are helpful for Paraphrases. If you can't find an approach how you could change the sentence, you can also approach the matter with a system and the Change sentence structure.
Change your point of view
An effective way to paraphrase a sentence or a passage of text is to change your point of view. For example, if the sentence reflects the relationship between a cat and a dog from the dog's point of view, you could reflect the cat's point of view by reversing the conclusion.
Another option is to change the order in which information is presented. An example:
"The human mind is a complex system that can not only serve as a tool, but also uses its own capabilities, such as the repression of trauma."
Do you now change the Order of this information, you have a quick paraphrase. You can also leave out certain pieces of information to shorten the sentence:
"The repression of trauma is an independent ability of the human mind."
Use synonyms to paraphrase
Another way to paraphrase is to use synonyms. First think about it yourself or, if necessary, look it up on the Internet. An example is:
"In his opinion, this statement is correct."
"He regards the point of view as correct."
Instead of “statement” the synonym “point of view” was used and instead of “correct” the synonym “correct”. In addition, the sentence has been changed. Synonyms often offer good starting points for redesigning the sentence structure.
Change the sentence structure
The sentence structure or the sentence structure can quickly turn a quote into a paraphrase. Especially complex sentences that consist of many parataxes can be split up wonderfully.
A long sentence can become two or three sentences. Conversely, you can also form a long sentence with the most important information from several sentences. Another possibility is to switch between active and passive, like here:
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"It used to be believed that the earth was flat."
"Long ago it was believed that the earth was flat."
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