Goat sheep farming is a profitable business

Annual report


1 2019



4 Editor: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut The President Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig Telephone: (0531) 596 0, Fax: (0531), Editing: Press and Public Relations of the Thünen Institute, 2020 Corporate Design: Completion: Photos: ISSN besscom AG, Berlin Mareike Zech, Thünen-Institut Christina Waitkus (title below, p. 2, p. 15, p. 24, p. 26, p. 32); Lydia Rosenkranz (title center left, p. 29); Thünen Institute of Agricultural Technology (title middle right, p. 17); Thünen-Institut (title above, p. 20, p. 22, p. 27, p. 33, p. 34, p. 35, p. 36, p. 38); Michael Welling (p. 8 & 9, p. 13, p. 14, p. 16, p. 18); Katja Seifert (p. 10, p. 12, p. 28); Rainer Sturm / pixelio.de (p. 11); Landschaftspflegeverband Thüringer Wald e. V. (p. 19); Thünen Institute for Agricultural Climate Protection (p. 21); Gerold Rahmann (p. 23, back); Sebastian Rüter (p. 25); Ilja Hendel (p. 30); Heike Liesebach (p. 31); Daniel Stepputtis (p. 37); Susanne Klages (p. 39); Philipp Hölscher (pp. 40 and 41); BillionPhotos.com stock.adobe.com (pp. 46 and 47); Wrangler stock.adobe. com (p. 106 and 107) The full text of the annual report of the Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute is available at.


6 2 Foreword Foreword President: Prof. Dr. Folkhard Isermeyer This report gives you an overview of our activities and important events in 2019: clearly structured for quick readers, for those who are based on key figures with meaningful facts and figures. Anyone who is more deeply interested in the content can find out more about our research and consulting activities using the contributions from the individual specialist institutes. In addition, I recommend that you take a look at our user-oriented, diverse website (The year 2019 brought, for the second year in a row, extreme heat and drought in the summer months. This had a significant effect on the natural areas of fields and forests, which we focus on The effects of the extreme weather were most visible in the German forests. Spruce in particular, but surprisingly also beeches and other tree species were affected, at least a hectare of forest stands died and more than 100 million cubic meters of damaged wood. When it came to the question of how the forests should be managed, the Thünen Institute was a sought-after advisor, both in politics and in the media. those that will have to cope with the climatic conditions in 100 years are planted today, including the fishing industry rich is feeling the climate change. The warming of the Baltic Sea has contributed to the fact that the young herring larvae hatch earlier than their prey appears. The stock suffers as a result, so that the catch quota for Baltic herring was significantly reduced in 2019, with a major impact on inshore fishing. In the North Sea, cold-loving species such as cod are retreating north, and southern species such as sardines, anchovies, sea bass, but also squid, are advancing further. Developments that concern the ecologically and economically oriented working groups of our fishing institutes in equal measure. The political efforts to effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions also focus on agriculture. At the Thünen Institute we have extensively investigated whether it would be possible and sensible to include the agricultural sector in CO₂ pricing as part of cross-sector and cross-regional emissions trading. The assessment: The inclusion is more difficult than in other economic sectors, but quite feasible. The farmers would have the advantage that their freedom of choice is less restricted than would be the case with a continuous tightening of specialist law. For climate policy, the advantage would be that almost all sectors would then be included in a market-compliant, uniformly administrable set of rules that could also be relatively easily transferred to other countries if necessary. Other prominent topics in the agricultural sector, in which the Thünen Institute provided valuable input, were the further development of a viable livestock strategy and questions about reducing nitrate pollution and the new fertilizer ordinance. The living conditions in rural areas and their economic situation are playing an increasingly important role in politics. The political decision-makers' need for advice increases accordingly. As a consequence, the Bundestag decided in 2019 to expand this work area at the Thünen Institute in terms of staff and institutions. In the future there will be two specialist institutes that research a) the economic and b) the social situation in rural areas. The Federal Ministry's increasing need for advice is also expressed in the fact that many academic staff were seconded to the Ministry, some of them for longer periods of time. In 2019, the delegation rate was the highest since the Thünen Institute was founded. There was a positive development in the refilling of the management position at the Institute for Wood Research, which has been vacant for around ten years. We are confident that we will be able to welcome a new head of the institute in spring 2020, who also maintains close contacts with the University of Hamburg at the Hamburg-Bergedorf site. The year 2019 ended in a festive and dynamic way with the »thünen-tag«, which was held for the first time in this form and during which the Thünen research prizes were awarded for outstanding activities in the categories of »scientific performance« and »target group-oriented work«.

7 Organizational structure of the Thünen Institute 3 Organizational structure of the Thünen Institute President Prof. Dr. Folkhard Isermeyer representative Prof Dr. Heinz Flessa Presidential Office: Margit Fink Research Coordinator: Stefan Lange Press Spokesman: Dr. Michael Welling Media Officer: Ulrike Hochgesand Climate Officer: Bernhard Osterburg Soil Officer: Dr. Anna Jacobs Scientific Advisory Board of the Thünen Institute Chairman: Prof. Dr. Harald Grethe Thünen-Kollegium Members: Heads of the institute and elected scientists Administration: Christoph Bauch Technical institutes Sub-area Agriculture Sub-area Forest Sub-area Fish Center for Information Management: Beate Oerder Spokesperson: PD Dr. Martin Banse Spokesperson: Prof. Dr. Andreas Bolte Speaker: Dr. Christopher Zimmermann Confidant for good scientific practice: Prof. Dr. Christoph Tebbe Rural Areas Prof. Dr. Peter Weingarten Wood Research Dr. Johannes Welling (acting) Seefischerei Dr. Gerd Kraus Equal Opportunities Officer: Birgit Rönnpagel Business Administration Dr. Hiltrud Nieberg International Forestry and Forest Economics Prof. Dr. Matthias Dieter Fisheries Ecology Prof. Dr. Reinhold Hanel Data protection officer: Horst Schwartz Contact person for corruption prevention: Margit Fink Market analysis PD Dr. Martin Banse Forest Ecosystems Prof. Dr. Andreas Bolte Baltic Sea Fishery Dr. Christopher Zimmermann General Staff Council Personnel Council Detlef Timpe Dr. Cornelia Scholz-Seidel Agricultural Technology Prof. Dr. Engel Hessel Forest Genetics Dr. habil. Bernd Degen Local Personnel Councils Bremerhaven Alexandra Poell Eberswalde Ralph Ryl Großhansdorf Vivian Kuhlenkamp Hamburg-Bergedorf Christina Waitkus Rostock Daniel Oesterwind Trenthorst Annette Pontillo Waldsieversdorf Pascal Eusemann Representative for all severely disabled persons Confidential: Tanja Rock Biodiversity Prof. Dr. Jens Dauber Agricultural Climate Protection Prof. Dr. Heinz Flessa Organic Farming Prof. Dr. Gerold Rahmann booth:

8 4 Institute locations Institute locations Kiel Bremerhaven Trenthorst Großhansdorf Barsbüttel Rostock Hamburg Bremen Eberswalde Hanover Braunschweig Berlin Waldsieversdorf Magdeburg Institute for Rural Areas (LR) Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Business Administration () Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Market Analysis ( MA) Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Agricultural Technology (AT) Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Biodiversity (BD) Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Agricultural Climate Protection (AK) Bundesallee 50, Braunschweig, Tel .: Institute for Organic Agriculture (OL) Trenthorst 32, Westerau, Tel .: Institute for Wood Research (HF) Leuschnerstr. 91, Hamburg, Tel .: External location: Haidkrugsweg 1, Barsbüttel, Tel .: Institute for International Forest Management and Forest Economics (WF) Leuschnerstr. 91, Hamburg, Tel .: Institute for Forest Ecosystems (WO) Alfred-Möller-Str. 1, Eberswalde, Tel .: Institute for Forest Genetics (FG) Sieker Landstr. 2, Großhansdorf, Tel .: External location: Eberswalder Chaussee 3a, Waldsieversdorf, Tel .: Institute for Sea Fisheries (SF) Herwigstrasse 31, Bremerhaven, Tel .: Institute for Fishery Ecology (FI) Herwigstrasse 31, Bremerhaven, Tel .: Institute for Baltic Sea Fisheries ( OF) Alter Hafen Süd 2, Rostock, Tel .:

9 College and Scientific Advisory Board 5 College and Scientific Advisory Board (status) College President Prof. Dr. Folkhard Isermeyer Representative in absentia for the President Prof Dr. Heinz Flessa Institute directors PD Dr. Martin Banse Prof. Dr. Andreas Bolte Prof. Dr. Jens Dauber Dr. habil. Bernd Degen Prof. Dr. Matthias Dieter Prof Dr. Heinz Flessa Prof. Dr. Reinhold Hanel Prof. Dr. Engel Friederike Hessel Dr. Gerd Kraus Dr. Hiltrud Nieberg Prof. Dr. Gerold Rahmann Prof. Dr. Peter Weingarten Dr. Johannes Welling (acting) Dr. Christopher Zimmermann selected scientists Dr. Matthias Bernreuther Dr. Stefan Burkart Regina Grajewski Martin Kraft Dr. Heike Liesebach Dr. Heino Polley Dr. Jürn Sanders Margit Fink (Secretary) Christoph Bauch (Permanent Advisory Member) Guests Stefan Lange (Research Coordinator) Beate Oerder (Head of ZI) Birgit Rönnpagel (Equal Opportunities Officer) Dr. Michael Welling (Press Spokesman) Scientific Advisory Board Prof. Dr. Harald Grethe (Chairman) Prof. Dr. Karen Wiltshire (Vice Chair) Prof. Dr. Günther Bachmann Prof. Dr. Aletta Bonn Dr. Peter Breckling Prof. Dr. agr. habil. Reiner Brunsch Prof. Dr. Rainer Danielzyk Prof. Dr. Reinhard Grandke Prof. Dr. Annette Hafner Dr. Friedrich Wilhelm Köster Jörg-Andreas Krüger Prof. Carlo Leifert Leonhard Nossol Prof. Dr. Carola Paul Dr. Silvio Schüler Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Albrecht Daniel Thaer - Institute for Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, International Agricultural Trade and Development Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), List / Sylt Council for Sustainable Development, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ) , Department of Ecosystem Services, German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research (idiv) German Fisheries Association Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy e. V. (ATB) Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning (ARL), German Agricultural Society e.v. (DLG) Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Resource-Efficient Construction National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark NABU President Southern Cross University, Center for Organics Research, Lismore, Australia Zellstoff- und Papierfabrik Rosenthal GmbH Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, Burckhardt Institute, Department of Forest Economics and Sustainable Land Use Planning Federal Forest Research Center ( BFW), Institute for Forest Growth and Silviculture, Vienna, Austria



12 2019

13 01 Brief balance sheets of the institutes

14 10 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Rural Areas (LR) Head: Dir. And Prof. Prof. Dr. Peter Weingarten We research the development of rural areas and derive scientifically based decision-making aids for political action from this. With its resolutions on the 2020 budget, the Bundestag created the basis for strengthening departmental research on rural areas at the Thünen Institute over the next few years. In the following we report exemplarily on individual points of the institute's work in the year Living Conditions in Rural Areas This topic focuses on the effects of socio-economic and demographic changes on the living conditions of the population in rural areas. The population survey carried out as part of our monitoring rural areas (shows that there are differences in equipment between the types of rural areas. For some population groups, this makes their everyday life more difficult: families in rural areas first name a lack of pediatricians in the local area as a problem. Future for Refugees in Rural Regions of Germany «we are investigating in eight districts whether and how humanitarian engagement in the integration of refugees and rural development can be successfully combined. With universities in Groningen (Netherlands) and Belfast (Northern Ireland) we are researching in a DFG- Project about staying (perspective) n in rural areas. For the project »Feelings of being left behind in rural areas?« We examined articles in the print media. They addressed three different forms of »being left behind«: infrastructural, economic and cultural, those with a conglomerate of feelingsout of fears, dissatisfaction and powerlessness and also with a criticism of the democratic system. Our studies of local supplies in rural areas show that the number of grocery stores continues to shrink, but that this process has lost much of its intensity compared to the second half of the 2000s. Economy and work in rural areas The economic development of rural areas and their growth and employment potential are at the center of this topic. Together with the Institute for Employment Research, we are investigating the spatial mobility of workers. Initial results show markedly heterogeneous migration balances in rural regions. On balance, rural areas show net immigration for employees subject to social insurance contributions. In the “Digitization and Social Services” project, we showed that discourses in this context are often shaped by a technological determinism, although successful handling of digitization requires, on the contrary, that local production structures and goals are considered. In the ReTiKo project started in 2019, we are working with the Thünen Institute for Market Analysis to analyze the regional economic effects of a possible reduction in livestock farming. In a project on municipal finances that started at the end of 2019, we are investigating determinants and mechanisms of the municipal income and expenditure system. Resource use, environmental and nature protection In this topic we examine the effects of agriculture on water, climate, soil and biodiversity and deal with the topic of food waste. The project »Evaluation of the CAP reform from the point of view of environmental protection«, which was completed in 2019, shows that, despite the introduction of greening, there were only minor changes in land use during the period under review, so that the abiotic environmental effects of agriculture hardly changed. There is currently no comprehensive information on how intensively grassland is used in Germany. We develop methods to automatically determine the use of permanent grassland from remote sensing data. Germany is committed to reducing food waste at both retail and consumer levels

15 Brief assessments of the institutes 11 Research and policy advice: an eye on rural areas (Rainer Sturm / pixelio.de) to reduce by 50% in 2030. According to the 2015 baseline we created, the total food losses amounted to 11.9 million t of fresh matter, 52% of which occurred in private households. Social policy in the agricultural sector In the field of social policy in the agricultural sector, only monitoring activities could be carried out in 2019. Policy for rural areas The specialist working groups of the Commission on Equal Living Conditions set up by the Federal Government in 2018 completed their reports in 2019. In July, the federal cabinet adopted measures to implement the results of the commission. We support the BMEL with scientifically based policy advice. In close cooperation with the Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research, we contributed to the creation of the “Germany atlas”. In our 5-country evaluation, the focus was on the mid-term review of the implementation of the rural development programs. The country programs were evaluated against all goals of rural development policy. The results are documented in the extended annual implementation reports of the federal states. Further development of EU agricultural policy The Scientific Advisory Council on Agricultural Policy, Nutrition and Consumer Health Protection at the BMEL, in its 2019 statement on "Possibilities, starting points and limits of administrative simplification of the EU's Common Agricultural Policy", shows ways of reducing the administrative burden to an appropriate level. In the statement published in 2019 on the “Effective shaping of the agri-environmental and climate protection policy within the framework of the common agricultural policy of the EU after 2020”, the Advisory Council makes recommendations on how the “green architecture” of the common agricultural policy should be used for a reorientation of agricultural policy geared to the common good. We worked extensively on these statements. Model-based policy impact assessment For model-based policy impact assessments, we are continuously developing our "regionalized agricultural and environmental information system for Germany" (RAUMIS).Our spatially differentiated studies for North Rhine-Westphalia show that if the Fertilizer Ordinance of 2017 were consistently implemented, the nitrogen surpluses in North Rhine-Westphalia would overall be reduced more than is necessary to achieve the goals of the Water Framework Directive. It remains to be examined in more detail whether the water protection goals would be met across the board. In addition, Dr. Patrick Küpper, Stefan Kundolf, Dr. Tobias Mettenberger and Dr. Gesine Tuitjer has been awarded the Thünen Research Prize, several institute members are or have been active in responsible positions in various scientific societies: the Society for Economic and Social Sciences in Agriculture (GEWISOLA), the Working Group Structural Policy of the Society for Evaluation, the Working Group Rural Areas of the German Society for Geography, the Section Land, Agricultural and Food Sociology and the Section Sociological Network Research of the German Society for Sociology and the AK "Social Networks and Health" of the German Society for Network Research. Several institute members are involved in teaching at universities in Bochum, Braunschweig, Budapest, Halle (Saale), Hanover and Rostock. around 250 participants discussed in Braunschweig at the GEWISOLA conference "Agriculture and Rural Areas in Social Change", which we co-organized.

16 12 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Business Administration () Head: Dir. And Prof. Dr. Hiltrud Nieberg The Institute for Business Administration examines how companies in the agri-food industry develop, how they adapt to changing framework conditions, what consequences this has and what politics can do to achieve agricultural and socio-political goals. These questions are dealt with in a national and international context. Sector analyzes The studies on the basis of the Agricultural Test Farm Network (TBN) show that the basic rents for the years 2009 to 2018 in processing farms and arable farms are comparatively high on average and that the more successful farms achieve basic rents that are significantly above the regional lease price level. Despite the rising lease prices, the share of lease expenses in the total operating expenses is relatively small. The sale of land and its back lease (Sale-and-Leaseback - SLB) is an instrument for company succession and business start-ups in agriculture. On the basis of model calculations and expert discussions it was shown that the SLB offers of the rural settlement and rural companies with a buyback option in comparison with other solutions on the private market are economically i. d. As a rule, they are rather unfavorable because the lease-back period is relatively short and possible buy-back options are rarely used in practice by companies in difficulty. Production systems The data collected within the framework of the agri benchmark network are the basis of the annual standard analyzes on arable farming, cattle, sheep and pigs and are also incorporated into various projects. In the sheep sector, a nationwide survey of sheep farmers on the status quo and perspectives of German sheep farming was carried out, which will form the basis for the establishment of a network of typical farms. The poultry sector is being strengthened as part of two projects started in 2019 on poultry exports to Africa (Immpex) and animal welfare in sustainable and ecological poultry farming (PPilow). In the field of arable farming, the analyzes in the context of increasingly liberalized sugar markets show that beet is internationally competitive on the raw material level, while the processing of beet has cost disadvantages compared to the processing of sugar cane in Brazil. An evaluation of the state variety tests on the economic viability of fungicide use shows that in some regions of north-east Germany the additional revenues as a result of the use did not cover the additional costs over the years. In a new project, the potential and internal competitiveness of soybean cultivation in the EU are being investigated. For the analysis of greenhouse gas reduction strategies in arable farming and cattle production, extensive data was collected at home and abroad. In field vegetable growing, the analyzes of nitrogen fertilization show that measures to increase nitrogen efficiency are available at low additional costs compared to previous practice, but that they entail considerable changes in operational workflows. As part of the “Milk Sustainability Module” pilot project, more than 1,000 milk producers have now completed the questionnaire to record 84 sustainability criteria from the areas of economy, ecology, social affairs and animal welfare. Almost two thirds of these have received individual benchmark reports that show the respective strengths and weaknesses with regard to the sustainability criteria compared to other companies. Environmental and animal welfare policy The “National Animal Welfare Monitoring” (NaTi-Mon) project, which started in 2019 as a consortium with nine participating institutes, creates the scientific prerequisites for implementing regular reports on animal welfare in livestock farming. The analysis of various animal welfare premium measures in the federal states came to the conclusion that the measures basically have the potential to improve animal welfare, but so far only with the premiums

17 Brief assessments of the institutes 13 Climate change, global competition and social expectations create uncertainty: The institute contributes directly and indirectly to objectifying the discussion in a variety of ways. (Michael Welling) a small proportion of farm animals is achieved. The analyzes of alternatives to anesthetized piglet castration showed that under the price assumptions made, boar fattening and immunocastration are the most economical alternatives on an individual farm. A case study on fruit and vegetables in the REFOWAS project on food loss showed suitable measures to reduce food loss: (a) improved management in greenhouses and film tunnels, (b) establishment of a continuous cold chain from the field to the food retail trade, (c) use of intelligent packaging , (d) making delivery dates more flexible. Initial results on the monitoring of biological diversity in agricultural landscapes show that, based on remote sensing data, it is possible to automatically determine the boundaries of the field up to a quality of 70 percent. The quality depends heavily on the size of the field, the soil heterogeneity and the time of the satellite image acquisition. At the 2019 ZöL conference organized by the Thünen Institute, 150 experts from politics, business and science discussed the future strategy of organic farming and the future eco-funding policy together with Federal Minister Julia Klöckner. Model-based policy impact assessment The FARMIS farm group model has been expanded to include emission-relevant data. Initial analyzes show that a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions could be achieved through direct CO₂ emission taxation even with a low level of tax and, above all, by rewetting peatlands. Taxing nitrogen surpluses, on the other hand, leads to very high avoidance costs. The further developed model was also used for the first analyzes of the Federal Government's Climate Protection Plan 2050. Analyzes of the partial equilibrium model CAPRI for a possible import ban on soy, maize and wheat result in sharply rising prices for protein fodder crops, meat and rapeseed meal due to the high dependency on imported soy as feed for German and European pig and cattle fatteners. The cultivation areas for domestic legumes, including soy, are increasing and extensive grassland is being intensified. Agricultural policy / risk management in agriculture To support risk management, various sides are calling for tax incentives for the formation of reserves in agriculture. An analysis of various models shows that tax advantages and thus the incentive to build up additional reserves are low on average for companies. Above all, successful companies will benefit if they have the necessary free financial resources to build up a reserve even without funding. In connection with the discussion about the promotion of insurance solutions, drought insurance was analyzed on the basis of regional soil moisture and average yields. This made the potential and limits of index catastrophe insurance as basic protection clear.

18 14 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Market Analysis (MA) Head: Dir. And Prof. PD Dr. Martin Banse What effects do changed political, economic and social framework conditions have on the markets of the agricultural and food industry? What is driving these markets and how are they likely to develop? What does society expect from food and its production processes? These questions are the focus of our work at the Institute for Market Analysis. Analysis of the markets in the agri-food industry The question of possible increases in efficiency has not only received new impetus from digitization in the agri-food industry. In the analysis of these markets, too, topics such as information procurement, data processing, automation and artificial intelligence are increasingly taken up in order to increase the efficiency and quality of products and production processes with the help of new technologies. This is exemplarily implemented (in a pilot project) based on the analysis of the egg and poultry markets. Another main task remains the continuous monitoring and analysis of the markets for meat, milk, grain, oilseeds and sugar. Against the background of the abolition of the EU quota system, the sugar market is currently in a crisis, so that in 2019 the need for political advice in this area was high. For example, we have contributed our market expertise to a high-level working group on the sugar market at European level. An exemplary activity in the milk market is the regional marketing project, in which factors are determined that influence the success of in-house processing and marketing of milk. In addition, a report was drawn up on the possibilities and limits of influencing the milk price. The pilot project to set up systematic monitoring of the bioeconomy in Germany is about to be completed. This monitoring concept is being developed together with the Thünen Institute for International Forestry and Forest Economics and the Institute for Sea Fisheries. Policy Impact Assessment Agricultural subsidies are used around the world to promote local agriculture. These subsidies often promote production that is neither optimal from an environmental nor from a health perspective. Together with colleagues from the University of Oxford, we use a model-based analysis to quantify the effects of existing subsidies and identify restructuring in funding that reduces undesirable effects. As a result, targeted promotion of fruit and vegetables would have positive effects on the environment and health. The topics of climate change and climate policy are also gaining in importance. In a study, we analyzed the extent to which the introduction of a CO₂ tax on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture would help reduce these emissions and what effects it would have on agricultural production and trade. In particular, the different effects of the introduction of a CO₂ tax on the producer or consumer side were discussed. As part of the BEPASO project, the general equilibrium model MAGNET was modified and coupled with a forest and a land allocation model in order to simulate the change in the current economy towards a bioeconomy. Changes in consumer behavior and a corresponding adjustment in the food industry play a very important role in this transformation. As in the previous year, analyzes on Brexit were carried out in 2019 and long-term projections were made for the most important agricultural markets across the EU. Consumer research The BEPASO project, which depicts future scenarios of different levels of use of bio-based raw materials, is drawing to a close. With the help of three scenarios, social and economic conditions in 2050 are mapped and quantified using specific indicators and model calculations. The analysis of the social

19 Brief balance sheets of the institutes 15 Container ship in the Kiel Canal. (Christina Waitkus / Thünen-Institut) chen acceptance of these different scenarios shows that a complete transformation of the economy into a bio-based economy is clearly preferred. Advantages and disadvantages of the scenarios from the perspective of the citizens are shown and provide valuable information for possible development paths. In a project on the attitudes of young adults to organic products, the results show that in this age group, too, organic competes strongly with regional. Organic labeling is often less trusted than a regional label. Confidence-building measures are an important prerequisite for increasing the demand for organic products, not only in this age group. The SocialLab project, which was completed with great success in the first round, is entering a second phase. With »SocialLab II Acceptance (of livestock husbandry) through innovation«, the aim of the next three years is to show how communication between different actors can be improved and what stables that are generally accepted by society must look like in the future. International Agricultural Trade and World Food The IMMPEX project has started in the area of ​​"International Agricultural Trade and World Food". The aim of this research project is to examine the effects of German and European exports of poultry meat and dairy products on African countries using the example of Ghana and Senegal. On this basis, measures are to be proposed and analyzed in order to avoid or reduce possible undesirable effects of these exports, such as the displacement of domestic production in Africa. In September, a kick-off workshop was held in Ghana, where contacts to important stakeholders were made and information was collected. In this joint project with the Thünen Institute of Business Administration, we combine different approaches: consumer research and policy impact assessments as well as the analysis of production systems and competitiveness. Furthermore, together with the Thünen Institutes for Agricultural Climate Protection and Organic Farming, we have a summer school in August with the participation of doctoral students from Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Iran, Malawi, South Africa and Zambia on the subject of “Research-based Policy Advice, How does it work? «Aligned. The aim of this summer school was to learn methods of policy advice and to get to know a departmental research institute. In October we were able to hold an international workshop on the prevention of food loss and waste in Tokyo. The focus was on countries in Southeast and East Asia. The workshop was organized in cooperation with the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, the UN Environmental Program and the FAO Liaison Office Japan. 78 people from 10 countries took part.

20 16 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Agricultural Technology (AT) Head: Dir. And Prof. Prof. Dr. Engel Hessel Innovative technologies are the driving force behind improving the sustainability of agricultural production systems. Digitization is advancing in all areas of society; agriculture plays a pioneering role in this. The use of sensor technologies not only serves to evaluate agricultural processes, but also enables their precise control. Animal welfare can be improved with digital technologies. Innovative technologies also open up great potential for the use of renewable raw materials to manufacture bio-based chemical products and materials. Environmental technology animal To determine the emissions from freely ventilated open stall systems, a new type of measurement system has been developed and is currently being evaluated. The "Sensor Array Measuring Ball" SAMBa enables the fully automatic measurement of ammonia, CO₂ and dust as well as wind speed and direction. Using a networked large number of such »low-cost« sensor arrays, the parameters mentioned can be measured at as many points as possible at the interface between the stable and the environment. By coupling the measured values ​​with the numerical flow simulation, the entire emissions process in the stable can be mapped. In addition, various bioaerosol collectors were improved and evaluated. Further research is also being carried out on partial underfloor suction as an emission reduction option for freely ventilated open stall systems. In the case of forced-ventilated pig farms, predominantly biologically operating trickle bed filters are used to purify exhaust air. Our investigation of 154 test reports showed an average ammonia separation of 93%. In 97% of the systems, no smells typical of raw gas were found in the clean gas. Environmental technology soil / plants The soil-conserving driving on arable land was a central topic for us again this year.Using the example of the silage maize harvest, we pursue the holistic approach of not only measuring the effects of the traffic on the soil structure, but also documenting the spatial distribution of the loads on the area. B. in front of a bridge, rollover frequencies of 44 and added wheel loads of 155 t. Considering this not only for the silage maize harvest, but also for four crops in a rotation (crop rotation: winter wheat - silage maize - winter wheat - sugar beet), the range of mechanical loads on a field is clear. The overall view makes it possible to develop site-specific solutions and to derive appropriate recommendations for action. The investigations into the soil-conserving timber harvest were extended to a location in Solling on the low mountain range Elm. There we mainly carried out measurements in lanes and the undisturbed forest floor and compared them with each other. Despite the dry summer 2019 with little rainfall, there was increased soil moisture within the lanes. The increased storage density and reduced hydraulic conductivity also confirmed the results in the Solling. For phytosanitary precautions during the maize harvest, the mulching of the maize stubble before it is blown flat by the maize chopper or transport vehicle has the highest priority. In order to assess the quality of work of mulchers, the institute has developed a rating scheme for “maize stubble”. The automatically measured surface temperature of potato crops is basically suitable as an indicator for the drought stress of the plants. In a three-year project, we were able to show the conditions under which the crop temperature and the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) calculated from it can be used as a basis for making decisions about field irrigation.

21 Brief balances of the institutes 17 SAMBa measuring ball for the collection of emission data in freely ventilated open stall systems. (Thünen Institute for Agricultural Technology) Material use of renewable raw materials In various projects, issues relating to the digestion of biomass, the biotechnical and chemical conversion to bio-based and biodegradable materials and the sustainability of process chains were investigated. An ERA-Net project was successfully completed in which the entire value chain of the production of fumaric acid from renewable raw materials using a mushroom was considered. In addition to the development of a very efficient process strategy for the biotechnological production of fumaric acid, a high level of reproducibility was established and the understanding of the process significantly improved. This enabled the final concentration to be increased by 44% to 195 g / l fumaric acid compared to the literature. On the basis of extensive research and interviews, recommendations for promoting the appropriate use of bio-based biodegradable plastics were developed in a completed project. The recommendations for politics, business and science aim to close identified research gaps and to improve the normative framework and the communication between the actors. In a number of projects, the technological options for reducing environmental impacts, e.g. B. Nitrogen oxide and ammonia emissions are examined by means of eco-efficiency analyzes and their effects on the subsequent recycling chains, especially material use. The international cooperation within the framework of the IEA Bioenergy Task42 was continued, as was the management of the SETAC Europe LCA Steering Committee and the management of the DIN KU working group “Sustainable Chemicals”. One of our chemical laboratory assistant apprentices completed her training with honors in 2019 after shortening her training. The Institute for Agricultural Technology was also honored for the good training. Digitization and automation To strengthen the research and development of information and communication technologies in agriculture, the work area "Digitization and automation" has been continuously developed since summer 2018. To this end, the "network and transfer project for digitization in agriculture DigiLand" started in the summer of this year. Within this project, the research projects of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) as well as developments in economic practice with regard to technological developments are analyzed. The aim is to develop technology impact assessments and to network the institutions involved in the funding projects. On the initiative of the Ministry for Science and Culture in Lower Saxony, the Center for Digital Innovations Lower Saxony (ZDIN) was set up at the beginning of this year. It is intended to bundle and network application-oriented digitization research by institutions in Lower Saxony. The core of the ZDIN are six future laboratories that serve as (virtual) platforms and started in October for five years. One of the laboratories is the »future laboratory for agriculture«, in which the institute is involved with the sub-project »analysis of data records and data flows in agriculture«.

22 18 Brief balances of the institutes Institute for Biodiversity (BD) Head: Dir. And Prof. Prof. Dr. Jens Dauber Driven by the need to counteract the decline in species in agricultural landscapes, the institute underwent extensive further development in terms of staff and content in 2019. Two joint projects coordinated by the institute deserve special mention: The project "Monitoring Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes (MonViA)" is dedicated to standardized recordings and the resulting assessments of the condition and change in biological diversity in open agricultural landscapes and their soils. MonViA links all of the institute's work areas and develops links to forest and nature conservation monitoring. The FInAL project for the promotion of insects in agricultural landscapes through a transformation of agricultural production methods, jointly developed and implemented with farmers in landscape laboratories, has a similarly connecting effect. Field and laboratory studies In the working group “Microbiology and Molecular Ecology”, special methods for analyzing the smallest amounts of soil as they occur in aggregates have been developed for a more detailed examination of the microbiological genetic material of the soil, the so-called soil metagenome. Through the methodical development of these aggregate structures, individual microbial habitats were identified. Network analyzes revealed links between bacterial species that were previously not visible in this way. This improves the possibility of recording the effects of crop rotations, fertilization or pesticides on the diversity and function of soil microorganisms. The methods are also used in the monitoring of biological diversity in soils (MonViA). The working group “Structural and Functional Soil Zoology” also participates in this by recording soil protists. This working group also started the H2020 project Soildiver-Agro and coordinates the research work in the continental region. A Europe-wide monitoring of soil biodiversity in conventionally and ecologically managed farms was started here. With the ongoing analyzes of the soil mesocosms with fungus-eating soil animals, the practical work in SoilMan is completed. In two FNR joint projects on annual and perennial stands of energy crops, the first field measurements were carried out on the infiltration capacity of the soil depending on the earthworm populations (BESTLAND) as well as analyzes of the decomposition capacity of microarthropod communities (FInAL). Two projects were successfully completed in the “Land Use Options for Open Agricultural Landscapes” working group. In the “Thuringian Forest Mountain Grassland Project”, a practical method for recording and qualitative assessment of grassland was developed, implemented as a model and specific proposals for the design of grassland promotion were drawn up. In the project “Agricultural Birds and Land Use in Lower Saxony”, a negative influence of the increasing cultivation of intensive arable crops on field breeders was determined and future research and action needs to improve the habitat situation were derived. The investigations into the effects of land use and landscape change on agricultural birds will be continued in MonViA. In the “BM-Landwirtschaft” project, basic standards for the implementation of monitoring of biological diversity in agricultural landscapes are being developed. In RELEVANT, the working group “Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Agricultural Systems” did not demonstrate any clear effect of broad beans in crop rotation on pest antagonists and their performance within conventional cultivation methods. The rapid ecosystem function assessment (REFA) indicators were successfully tested and further developed in field experiments with spatial and temporal diversification of the cultivation systems (DiverIMPACTS) and are now also used in FInAL. The field work for

23 Brief assessments of the institutes 19 Species-rich grassland in the Thuringian Forest Nature Park (Landschaftspflegeverband Thüringer Wald e.V.) Effect of biodiversity-promoting measures on wild bees (F.R.A.N.Z.) have been completed. The second phase of the project has been applied for. Finally, the data from the FACE experiments of the former working group “Climate Impacts and Climate Adaptation” will be published. Modeling The "Landscape Ecological Modeling" working group focuses on the modeling of the effects of landscape structure and dynamics on the diversity of different groups of species of insects and plants. In HiLUCC as part of the biodiversity exploratories, effects of the historical agricultural landscape on species communities of arthropods and plants of the economic grassland were modeled. A simulation model for evaluating spatial sampling designs was developed for FInAL, which provides a basis for developing methods for accompanying monitoring in the landscape laboratories. In F.R.A.N.Z. the effects of the food supply and the landscape structure on wild bees were analyzed using existing simulation software. As an additional focus of MonVia, the development of simulation models of various insects (hover flies, ground beetles) was started. In the project "Permeability and Gap-Crossing" the resistance of agricultural landscapes to the spread of organisms is investigated. Monitoring The topic of climate impacts and climate adaptation is being further processed in the working group "Monitoring and evaluation of air pollutant and climate impacts". In a new UBA-funded project, the question of how ground-level ozone affects vegetation when other substances (especially nitrogen) and climate changes affect terrestrial ecosystems are being investigated. The results flow directly into the work on the further development of methods in order to be able to assess the risk of ozone effects on vegetation in a future climate more realistically. The AG "Agricultural Landscape Monitoring" coordinates MonViA and has started to implement the monitoring of biological diversity in agricultural landscapes together with other Thünen institutes as well as institutes of the JKI and the IBV (BLE). The working group started exploratory and feasibility studies as well as method developments (mainly for the monitoring of wild bees). The AG “Citizen Science in Agricultural Landscapes: Biodiversity Research with and for Society”, which was established in 2019 and is currently being developed, aims to supplement MonViA with monitoring systems based on citizen science. For this purpose, concepts are developed and tested in practice. The effectiveness and functionality of citizen science activities in the agricultural areas are scientifically examined and monitored. Methods of joint experimentation, observation and recording of biological diversity with farmers (including within the framework of Agroecosystem Living Labs) are being developed and implemented. In addition ... The working group "Climate Impacts and Climate Adaptation" was dissolved. The position of the deputy head of the institute was taken over by Prof. Dr. Stefan Schrader occupied.

24 20 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Agricultural Climate Protection (AK) Head: Dir. And Prof. Prof. Dr. Heinz Flessa What contribution does agriculture make to climate protection goals and air pollution control in Germany? In 2019, too, the processes, trends and mitigation measures of climate and environmentally relevant emissions from agriculture as well as the importance of agricultural soils for climate protection were the focus of the institute's policy advice and scientific work. Emission inventories The national emission inventories for greenhouse gases and air pollutants for agriculture and land use were also drawn up in 2019. These inventories are part of the German emissions reports within the framework of international agreements on climate protection and air pollution control. In 2018, agriculture caused greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry, fertilization and liming that were 19.8% below those of the climate protection reference year 1990. Compared to the previous year, emissions fell by 3.8%. This decline is mainly a consequence of the pronounced drought in 2018 and the poor development of crop yields, to which the farmers reacted with less nitrogen fertilization. A continuing decline in the number of cattle also contributed to the reduction in emissions. The carbon dioxide emissions from agriculturally used soils, most of which come from drained moors, have remained consistently high since 1990. Ammonia emissions from agriculture are a persistent problem area. Compared to the previous year, they have decreased significantly, but despite binding commitments to reduce emissions (-29% by 2030) they are still 1.8% above the emissions of the reference year Emissions from agricultural soils. We are very pleased that our long-time employee René Dechow has taken over the management of the »Modeling« area and that this central work area can be further developed. The DFG research group "Denitrification in Agricutural Soils" was granted a second funding phase. Our new DFG project for modeling the effect of different application techniques for liquid manure and fermentation residues on the emission of N₂O and N₂ is thematically closely linked to this research group. In the new Bestland project (specialist agency for renewable raw materials), we are evaluating the potential of growing permanent crops on sites of variable humidity for reducing greenhouse gases. Our “peat soils” working group has started planning a nationwide, long-term peat land monitoring, with which the CO₂ emissions from differently used and drained peat soils up to renatured and near-natural peat bogs can be quantified. We are very pleased that we can tackle this challenge with the support of newly assigned positions filled with Stefan Frank, Ullrich Dettmann and Arndt Piayda. The projects “Optimization of Sphagnum Paludiculture” and “Carbon Dynamics in Mixed Sand Cultures” have started, in which open questions about peat moss cultivation and the carbon balance of mixed peat and sand soils are investigated (Thünen projects). As part of a new project funding from the DFG (VESBO project), the water and carbon balance of rewetted raised bogs is analyzed depending on the plant composition. Our international activities with partners in Africa are also growing: As part of our ongoing, BMBF-financed project network EMSAfrica (Ecosystem Management Support for Climate Change in Southern Africa), we have taken on the coordination of the BMBF-SPACES-2 training program in the Southern Africa region. Carbon in soils "Using soils sustainably and protecting the climate" is one of our guiding principles. The agricultural soil condition survey, which was completed at the end of 2018, kept us busy again in 2019 with numerous inquiries about results, evaluations and cooperation requests. The first records of the soil inventory should be released this winter

25 Brief balances of the institutes 21 Measurement area for recording greenhouse gas flows and the material dynamics in a peat moss paludiculture. (Thünen Institute for Agricultural Climate Protection). The planning for a second agricultural soil condition survey, with which changes in organic soil carbon stocks are to be recorded, has already begun. We are very pleased that the competence area »soil monitoring« has been secured with a new post and has been filled with our long-term employee and soil expert Christopher Poeplau. The establishment of the Thünen Laboratory for Soil Monitoring, which is affiliated with our institute and which our long-term employee and soil laboratory expert Arne Heidkamp has taken on, strengthens this area of ​​work. In our new project "Breaking the Ice" (DFG), the effects of land use on the stocks of soil organic carbon in a permafrost region in Canada are investigated. For this purpose, extensive soil samples were carried out on site this summer. The “CarboHedge” project also started again in 2019 (Thünen project). This project investigates and evaluates how much organic carbon can be stored in the soil both above and below ground by planting field hedges.In the new SoilSpace 3D project (Thünen project), which is being worked on together with the Leipzig-Halle Environmental Research Center, new maps for important soil parameters such as B. created the content of organic soil carbon. Another new project, in cooperation with soil experts from the federal states, analyzes the changes in the supply of organic soil carbon in the permanent soil observation areas of the federal states (Thünen project). Ammonia emissions and nitrogen deposition Policy advice and assessment of measures relating to the National Air Pollution Control Program, which contains measures to reduce ammonia emissions in agriculture, was a central focus of work this year. The work area reduction of ammonia emissions will be strengthened by a new position. We are very pleased that we have been able to win Andreas Pacholski, one of the most renowned ammonia experts in Germany, for our team. He will take over the management of this work area from January 2020. Our BMBF junior research group »Nitrosphere«, which has successfully researched the recording and effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition for six years and has documented its results in many refereed publications, presented its final report. We are delighted with Angélica Jaconi and Frederik Schrader, who successfully completed their doctorates in 2019.

26 22 Brief balance sheets of the institutes Institute for Organic Agriculture (OL) Head: Dir. And Prof. Prof. Dr. Gerold Rahmann The institute is developing interdisciplinary more environmentally friendly, animal-friendly and more efficient agricultural systems under the legal goals of the EU organic regulation with a focus on animal husbandry. There was an "average weather", which after two extreme years (very humid 2017 and very dry 2018) the scientific- facilitated experimental work on the experimental station. Research in practice companies throughout Germany has been further strengthened. Animal welfare and environmental protection were the focus without neglecting the economy. Many events at the location, especially organized and supported by the development association, but also trade fair appearances, own conferences, lectures and publications contributed to the dissemination of knowledge. Arable and crop production The INTERREG project “Carbon Farming” is about exploring how humus content in soils can be protected and increased in practice. In addition, options are being evaluated to market this service as a carbon credit. For this purpose, a workshop with interested farmers, a conference at Agritechnica and a questionnaire campaign were carried out. In addition, local field tests with variants for influencing and tracking the carbon accumulation in soils were set up. In the plant cultivation projects, the legumes continue to be the focus, with the focus increasingly being placed on alternative and new legume species. For example, as part of the “WickEiweiss” project, the cultivation of seed vetch in a mix with grain types as grain legumes is being optimized so that it can be used in feeding monogastric animals. In the projects “Mais-Bohne” and “LuMi-opt”, the batch cultivation of maize with runner beans or with Andean lupins for use as fodder or as a biogas substrate is being investigated. Batch cultivation trials are also carried out with white lupins and different types and varieties of oats in order to improve the yield per unit area. In the product quality working group, the focus was on the feed evaluation of various legumes individually and in a mixture with maize or grain. Corn and bean mixtures for cattle and pig feeding were evaluated, as were vetch varieties for poultry feeding or the green legumes red clover and alfalfa for poultry and pig feeding. The influence of feed on meat, milk and egg quality was also examined. Cattle husbandry As part of our four projects "EiKoTiGer", "Q Check", "NaTiMon" and "Animal Welfare Check", we continued our work in 2019 on the subjects of operational self-control (11 (8) TSchG) and the establishment of a national animal welfare monitoring system. Together with project partners and practice companies throughout Germany, we evaluate our "practical guidelines for animal welfare indicators" as well as the associated live and online training courses and are working on the creation of an evaluation framework to classify the results. In addition, we are building a system that processes the data that is already available in such a way that it can be used for the above-mentioned purposes and we are working on the creation of an app that should make it easier for companies to carry out their own internal control. The experiments in the institute's own dairy herd range among other things. from improving the animal-human relationship (partner: VetmedUni Vienna) to automatic milk volume reduction before drying off (partner: University of Bonn) to digitization in grazing. In the "CowData" project, in cooperation with the HU Berlin, the data from the herd management program is linked with animal-specific data that is collected by special sensors to measure activity and chewing and ruminating behavior. The aim is pasture management tailored to the animals. Methods for careful weaning are being investigated in mother-bound calf husbandry (partner: University of Giessen). Pig and poultry farming In the area of ​​organic pig farming, two new own funds projects have started with the focus on »Development

27 Brief balances of the institutes 23 Dairy cow herd with their calves in the last days of grazing Mother-bound calf rearing of dairy cows works and convinces science and consumers. (Gerold Rahmann / Thünen Institute) regional feeding concepts «. As in the long-running third-party funded project »Gruenlegum«, both are about determining the potential of feeding fine-seeded legumes. In the area of ​​pregnant sows, the "KleeFraß" project is intended to determine the daily intake of this mixture on the pasture. In the "KleeGrasMast" project, the usability of a silage made from red clover and German ryegrass is measured by fattening pigs. In the work focus “Animal Welfare”, the own funds project “Ferkeleisen” was completed with a publication in an international specialist journal. In the »Improvac« project, evaluation began after the data acquisition had been successfully completed. The same applies to the "Corn Beans" project. A new own funds project has also started in the area of ​​ecological chicken rearing. Building on the “Colorful Chickens” project, four dual-purpose chicken breeds are compared and tested for their potential for organic farming. The data acquisition in the "WickEiweiss" project also ended successfully. In this project, broilers, laying hens and forefattening pigs are used to investigate whether treatment methods such as germination and ensiling lead to a reduction in the negative effects of feeding protein-rich vetches. Other The results of the practical research network of ecological and conventional pilot farms were presented and discussed at a well-attended conference in the Braunschweig Forum. With regard to our focus on "animal welfare in dairy farming" it became clear that this always depends on management and that organic farming has systemic advantages when it comes to the animal welfare principles of "good husbandry", "good health" and "appropriate behavior". As in previous years, the national and international cooperations in organic farming were maintained and strengthened in 2019. This network work, for example with the World Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) and the Scientific Society of Organic Agriculture (ISOFAR), allows a deep insight and influence into the development of organic farming as an economic sector and its research. In view of the new EU eco-directives from 2021 in particular, it is valuable to be able to assess the effects on global production and trade flows. The demand for solutions in organic farming for agriculture in general is increasing, especially for other regions of the world. Support from the BMEL and the BMZ for their Africa strategies and activities (Organic Knowledge Hubs for Africa) is important. A newly started project deals with the connection of landless and land-based food production under limited space availability and precarious socio-economic conditions, as they will particularly challenge Africa in the future. Furthermore, we provided the BMEL with technical support in the ongoing negotiations on the design of the implementation provisions of the new EU organic regulation and supported the conference for the evaluation of the future organic farming strategy with several workshops.